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There is increasing interest in the use of gluten- and casein-free diets for children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). We report results from a two-stage, 24-month, randomised, controlled trial incorporating an adaptive 'catch-up' design and interim analysis. Stage 1 of the trial saw 72 Danish children (aged 4 years to 10 years 11 months) assigned to(More)
Bluetongue virus (BTV), an arbovirus transmitted by midges, can cause serious disease in sheep. Both virus neutralizing antibody and cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) have been shown to have a role in protective immunity. In this study, the antigen specificity of CTL from BTV-immune sheep has been determined using recombinant vaccinia viruses expressing(More)
On the basis of the connectionist model of leadership, we examined perceptions of leadership as a function of the contextual factors of race (Asian American, Caucasian American) and occupation (engineering, sales) in 3 experiments (1 student sample and 2 industry samples). Race and occupation exhibited differential effects for within- and between-race(More)
The opioid-excess hypothesis of autism suggests that autism is the consequence of the incomplete breakdown and excessive absorption of peptides with opioid activity (derived from foods which contain gluten and casein), causing disruption to biochemical and neuroregulatory processes. Biochemical evidence has indicated the presence of increased levels of(More)
Dietary intervention as a tool for maintaining and improving physical health and wellbeing is a widely researched and discussed topic. Speculation that diet may similarly affect mental health and wellbeing particularly in cases of psychiatric and behavioral symptomatology opens up various avenues for potentially improving quality of life. We examine(More)
BACKGROUND The aim of the present study was to ascertain the Body Mass Index (BMI) (kg m(-2)) derived from parental reports of height (metres) and weight (kilograms) of a pilot sample of boys born and resident in the UK diagnosed with pervasive developmental disorders (PDD). METHOD Analysis of parental reporting of height and weight measurements in boys(More)
BACKGROUND Excretion of creatinine in urine represents the end-point of endogenous energy transfer from stored adenosine triphosphate in skeletal and cardiac muscle. Measurement of urinary creatinine is commonly used to correct for total urine concentration. Various quantitative measures of compounds suspected to be either pathological to, or indicative of,(More)
OBJECTIVES To ascertain the frequency of parental reporting of selected variables related to development, behaviour and physiology in subgroups diagnosed with pervasive developmental disorders (PDDs) and identify any significant intragroup differences. DESIGN Retrospective cross-sectional analysis of records of patients (n = 512) held on a computerized(More)
This paper examines the distinctive patterns of the formation and evolution of social trust that explain the low presence of social capital in a new democracy. Despite the increase in the number of political and social associations since the return to democracy, Spain constitutes an example of low intensity equilibrium with low levels of interpersonal(More)
We previously reported results based on the examination of a gluten- and casein-free diet as an intervention for children diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder as part of the ScanBrit collaboration. Analysis based on grouped results indicated several significant differences between dietary and non-dietary participants across various core and peripheral(More)