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The vestibular system of the inner ear is responsible for the perception of motion and gravity. Key elements of this organ are otoconia, tiny biomineral particles in the utricle and the saccule. In response to gravity or linear acceleration, otoconia deflect the stereocilia of the hair cells, thus transducing kinetic movements into sensorineural action(More)
Degenerative disorders of motor neurons include a range of progressive fatal diseases such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), spinal-bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA), and spinal muscular atrophy (SMA). Although the causative genetic alterations are known for some cases, the molecular basis of many SMA and SBMA-like syndromes and most ALS cases is(More)
Array technology is a widely used tool for gene expression profiling in various biological systems. However, the application of this method to mammalian preimplantation embryos is limited by the small amount of mRNA that can be extracted from a single embryo, which is not sufficient for array analysis. Here we report a protocolfor the rapid global(More)
The identification of specific genetic loci that contribute to inflammatory and autoimmune diseases has proved difficult due to the contribution of multiple interacting genes, the inherent genetic heterogeneity present in human populations, and a lack of new mouse mutants. By using N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU) mutagenesis to discover new immune regulators,(More)
To understand carbon partitioning in roots and nodules of Datisca glomerata, activities of sucrose-degrading enzymes and sugar transporter expression patterns were analyzed in both organs, and plasmodesmal connections between nodule cortical cells were examined by transmission electron microscopy. The results indicate that in nodules, the contribution of(More)
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