P W Moldéus

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The role of active oxygen species and lipid peroxidation in the toxic effects of diquat, paraquat and other bipyridyl herbicides remains controversial. In vitro studies have shown that these compounds are potent generators of active oxygen species by redox cycling and that they stimulate lipid peroxidation. In vivo studies have failed, however, to show(More)
A reactive metabolite of acetaminophen is hepatotoxic in humans when the drug is ingested in large overdoses. The ability of the human fetal and adult liver to oxidize acetaminophen by trapping the potentially toxic metabolite as a glutathione conjugate has been measured. Oxidation by fetal liver was approximately ten times slower than by adult liver.(More)
Diethylstilbestrol is carcinogenic in rodents and in humans and its peroxidatic oxidation in utero has been associated with its carcinogenic activity. Horseradish peroxidase-catalyzed oxidation of [14C]diethylstilbestrol and [14C]diethylstilbestrol analogs induced binding of radiolabel to DNA only when the compound contained a free hydroxy group (Metzler,(More)
The occurrence of inflammatory processes and of cancer in the human respiratory tract is intimately associated. One of the major factors in this is probably the recruitment of and stimulated activity of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PML) in conjunction with the ability of these cells to convert various carcinogens to their ultimate active metabolites. In(More)
Further evidence for organelle interaction during drug metabolism by the liver is presented. The apparent stimulation by succinate of formaldehyde accumulation in the medium, which was reported to occur with liver slices and homogenates as well as with mitochondria plus microsomes, has been shown to be the result of succinate inhibition of mitochondrial(More)
The glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px)-like reduction of H2O2 by the selenoorganic compound 2-phenyl-1,2-benzoisoselenazol-3(H)-one (PZ51: Ebselen) was studied using glutathione (GSH) and the therapeutic agent N-acetylcysteine (NAC) to provide reducing equivalents. In a purely chemical system containing H2O2 and in an enzymatic system of glucose/glucose(More)
Diquat is a hepatotoxin whose toxicity in vivo and in vitro is mediated by redox cycling and greatly enhanced by pretreatment with 1,3-bis(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea (BCNU), an inhibitor of glutathione reductase. The mechanism by which redox cycling mediates diquat cytotoxicity is unclear, however. Here, we have attempted to examine the roles of three(More)
In order to clarify the role of oxidative processes in cytotoxicity we have studied the metabolism and toxicity of 2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone (menadione) and its 2,3 dimethyl (DMNQ) and 2,3 diethyl (DENQ) analogs in isolated rat hepatocytes. The two analogs, unlike menadione, cannot alkylate nucleophiles directly and were considerably less toxic than(More)
Sulphite oxidation and sulphur trioxide radical formation were studied in polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) isolated from healthy young, old and centenarian donors and from patients with Down's syndrome. The sulphur radical formation measured by electron spin resonance spectroscopy-spin trapping (EPR-ST) was correlated with the activity of sulphite(More)
The ubiquitous tripeptide glutathione (GSH) has previously been shown to be mutagenic to Salmonella typhimurium TA100 when incubated with kidney subcellular fractions at physiological concentrations (Glatt et al., 1983). Here we report that the mutagenic effect of GSH can be inhibited by the use of the gamma-glutamyl-transpeptidase (gamma-GT) inhibitor(More)