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A method was developed to assess leaching of several poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) plasticizers in aqueous media using gas chromatography (GC), and compared to a gravimetric standard test method (ASTM Method D1239). The GC method was a more direct measurement of plasticizer concentration in the aqueous phase. The leaching of commercial plasticizers, as well as(More)
Forty-two single mothers with young infants were given access to a computer-mediated social support (CMSS) network concerned with parenting issues. The network operated 24 hours per day over a period of 6 months. It permitted public message exchanges, private e-mail, and text-based teleconferencing for as many as 8 participants at any one time. During the 6(More)
Phthalate diesters such as di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) are considered ubiquitous contaminants and are poorly biodegraded in the environment. Moreover, both the parent compound and stable metabolites such as mono (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP) are linked to several negative impacts on the environment and human health. Earlier work established that(More)
Environment-friendly farming techniques seek to increase invertebrate biodiversity in part with the intention of encouraging greater numbers of predators that will help to control crop pests. However, in theory, this effect may be negated if the availability of a greater abundance and diversity of alternative prey diverts predators away from feeding on(More)
Pigeons key pecked for grain on a fixed-ratio 100 schedule; electric shocks occurred intermittently at the fifteenth or eighty-fifth response in the ratio. In Experiment I, shock was at the fifteenth response for two birds, and at the eighty-fifth response for two others, in every sixth, twelfth, or eighteenth ratio. Rate of responding decreased as(More)
  • P W Dodd
  • Journal of the experimental analysis of behavior
  • 1980
In Experiment 1, autoshaping trials terminated with food only if pigeons emitted more than a target number of responses during a trial in one condition and fewer than a target number in another. The median number of responses per trial shifted in accordance wtih the requirements. The responding of yoked-control birds that received response-independent(More)
  • P W Dodd
  • Journal of the experimental analysis of behavior
  • 1984
For three pigeons (Experiment 1), the presentation of a red response key ended with a food presentation either following two responses separated by at least 10 seconds (a DRL contingency) or following a 10-second response-free period (a DRO contingency). For three other birds (Experiment 2), a brief stimulus presentation terminated the DRL and DRO(More)
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