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Small trans-encoded RNAs (sRNAs) modulate the translation and decay of mRNAs in bacteria. In Gram-negative species, antisense regulation by trans-encoded sRNAs relies on the Sm-like protein Hfq. In contrast to this, Hfq is dispensable for sRNA-mediated riboregulation in the Gram-positive species studied thus far. Here, we provide evidence for Hfq-dependent(More)
Maximal repression by the CytR protein depends on the formation of nucleoprotein complexes in which CytR interacts with DNA and with cAMP-cAMP receptor protein (CRP). Here we demonstrate that CytR regulates transcription from deoP2 promoters in which the entire CytR recognition sequence has been eliminated. Furthermore, CytR proteins deleted for the(More)
The CytR repressor and the cAMP receptor protein (CRP) bind cooperatively to several promoters in Escherichia coli to repress transcription initiation. The synergistic binding is mediated by protein-protein interactions between the two regulators. Here, in vitro selection experiments have been used to examine the DNA-binding characteristics of CytR, by(More)
Regulation of transcription initiation by proteins binding at DNA sequences some distance from the promoter region itself seems to be a general phenomenon in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes. Proteins bound to an enhancer site in eukaryotes can turn on a distant gene, whereas efficient repression of some prokaryotic genes such as the gal, ara and deo operons(More)
The cAMP receptor protein (CRP) and the LacI-related CytR antiactivator bind cooperatively to adjacent DNA sites at or near promoters, an interaction that involves direct protein contacts. Here, we identify a collection of amino acid substitutions in CytR that reestablish protein-protein communication to mutant CRP proteins specifically defective in(More)
Hfq is a post-transcriptional regulator that plays a key role in bacterial gene expression by binding AU-rich sequences and A-tracts to facilitate the annealing of sRNAs to target mRNAs and to affect RNA stability. To understand how Hfq from the Gram-positive bacterium Staphylococcus aureus (Sa) binds A-tract RNA, we determined the crystal structure of an(More)
Small non-coding RNAs (sRNA) have emerged as important elements of gene regulatory circuits. In enterobacteria such as Escherichia coli and Salmonella many of these sRNAs interact with the Hfq protein, an RNA chaperone similar to mammalian Sm-like proteins and act in the post-transcriptional regulation of many genes. A number of these highly conserved(More)
In E. coli repression of transcription initiation by the CytR protein relies on CytR-DNA interactions as well as on interactions between CytR and the cAMP-CRP activator complex. To identify the nucleotide sequence recognized by CytR, mutants of the deoP2 promoter with a reduced regulatory response to CytR have been isolated. Five single bp mutation(More)
Previous studies of the structure and regulation of the deo operon in Escherichia coli have localized an internal regulated promoter, called deoP3, in front of the two distal genes in the operon. We report here the nucleotide sequence of the distal portion of the deoA, the deoA-deoB intercistronic region and the first part of the deoB gene, and show that(More)
We describe the construction of low copy number operon-fusion vectors, and use one of these vectors for the cloning and transcriptional analysis of the terminator region after the deo operon of Escherichia coli K-12. The new vectors are miniderivatives of plasmid R1 containing the parB stability locus of this plasmid and the lac genes as a selectable(More)
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