P. Vöhringer

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Biopsychosocial eclecticism has led, the authors believe, to a simplistic acceptance of a unitary view of MDD with little scientific solidity. The authors propose a return to careful psychopathology as the basis of all nosology, which has led to identifying four main types of depressive illness, and a method-based, existential approach to understanding(More)
AIMS Previous comparisons of cognitive decline among patients with bipolar disorder (BD) and schizophrenia (SZ) have found somehow quite similar profiles of deficits, but results have varied between studies. Therefore an extensive and thoughtful systematic review of the matter is warranted. METHODS Studies were found through systematic search (PubMed)(More)
BACKGROUND Numerous reviews and meta-analyses of the antidepressant literature in major depressive disorders (MDD), both acute and maintenance, have been published, some claiming that antidepressants are mostly ineffective and others that they are mostly effective, in either acute or maintenance treatment. OBJECTIVE The aims of this study were to review(More)
OBJECTIVE To examine the efficacy of ziprasidone vs. placebo for the depressive mixed state in patients with bipolar disorder type II or major depressive disorder (MDD). METHODS 73 patients were randomized in a double-blinded, placebo-controlled study to ziprasidone (40-160 mg/d) or placebo for 6 weeks. They met DSM-IV criteria for a major depressive(More)
BACKGROUND Mixed depression (MxD) is narrowly defined in the DSM-IV and somewhat broader in the DSM-5, although both exclude psychomotor agitation as a diagnostic criterion. This article proposes a clinical description for defining MxD, which emphasizes psychomotor excitation. METHODS Two hundred and nineteen consecutive outpatients were diagnosed with an(More)
Rates of misdiagnosis between major depressive disorder and bipolar disorder have been reported to be substantial, and the consequence of such misdiagnosis is likely to be a delay in achieving effective control of symptoms, in some cases spanning many years. Particularly in the midst of a depressive episode, or early in the illness course, it may be(More)
BACKGROUND We sought to test the hypothesis that antidepressants (ADs) may show preferential efficacy and safety among patients with type II bipolar disorder (BD, BD-II) more than patients with type I BD (BD-I). METHODS Patients with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, BD-I (n = 21) and BD-II (n = 49) in acute major(More)
BACKGROUND Depression is a common and disabling condition. Since 2001, Chile has had a national program for depression in primary care and universal access to treatment for depressed people over the age of 15. There are National Guidelines to treat depression but no training program exists. The aim of the present study protocol is to measure the(More)
OBJECTIVE Features of bipolarity in a major depressive disorder sample were used to define a "bipolar spectrum disorder" population for treatment with a neuroleptic agent, ziprasidone. METHODS Forty-nine acutely depressed patients were randomized to ziprasidone-washout-placebo or placebo-washout-ziprasidone in this double-blind, prospective, 13-week(More)