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We describe the genome sequence of the protist Trichomonas vaginalis, a sexually transmitted human pathogen. Repeats and transposable elements comprise about two-thirds of the approximately 160-megabase genome, reflecting a recent massive expansion of genetic material. This expansion, in conjunction with the shaping of metabolic pathways that likely(More)
A simple technique for routine, reproducible global surveillance of the drug susceptibility status of the anaerobic protozoa Trichomonas, Entamoeba, and Giardia is described. Data collected using this technique can be readily compared among different laboratories and with previously reported data. The technique employs a commercially available sachet and(More)
The anaerobic protozoa Giardia duodenalis, Trichomonas vaginalis, and Entamoeba histolytica infect up to a billion people each year. G. duodenalis and E. histolytica are primarily pathogens of the intestinal tract, although E. histolytica can form abscesses and invade other organs, where it can be fatal if left untreated. T. vaginalis infection is a(More)
We have induced high levels of resistance to metronidazole (1 mM or 170 microg ml(-1)) in two different strains of Trichomonas vaginalis (BRIS/92/STDL/F1623 and BRIS/92/STDL/B7708) and have used one strain to identify two alternative T. vaginalis 2-keto acid oxidoreductases (KOR) both of which are distinct from the already characterised pyruvate:ferredoxin(More)
Albendazole resistance was induced in three different Giardia cultures following growth in successively increasing amounts of drug. One of the lines was previously resistant to high levels of metronidazole and was able to grow in 2 microM albendazole. The other two survived exposure to 0.8 microM, while normally lethal levels of albendazole against Giardia(More)
The major 2-oxoacid oxidoreductase (2-OR), pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase (PFOR) from Giardia duodenalis has been purified to apparent homogeneity. A second 2-OR with a preference for alpha-ketobutyrate as substrate was identified and was removed from PFOR containing fractions during purification. Only PFOR and the second 2-OR were identified in gels of(More)
Two families of genes related to, and including, rolling circle replication initiator protein (Rep) genes were defined by sequence similarity and by evidence of intergene family recombination. The Rep genes of circoviruses were the best characterized members of the "RecRep1 family." Other members of the RecRep1 family were Rep-like genes found in the(More)
The gut protozoan parasite, Giardia duodenalis, is the best characterized example of the most ancient eukaryotes, which are anaerobic and appear to be primitively amitochondrial. Apart from its obvious medical importance, Giardia is fascinating in its own right. Its prokaryotic-like anaerobic metabolism renders it selectively sensitive to some bacterial(More)
Trichomoniasis is the most common, sexually transmitted infection. It is caused by the flagellated protozoan parasite Trichomonas vaginalis. Symptoms include vaginitis and infections have been associated with preterm delivery, low birth weight and increased infant mortality, as well as predisposing to HIV/AIDS and cervical cancer. Trichomoniasis has the(More)
Chemotherapy is central to the control of many parasite infections of both medical and veterinary importance. However, control has been compromised by the emergence of drug resistance in several important parasite species. Such parasites cover a broad phylogenetic range and include protozoa, helminths and arthropods. In order to achieve effective parasite(More)