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We describe the genome sequence of the protist Trichomonas vaginalis, a sexually transmitted human pathogen. Repeats and transposable elements comprise about two-thirds of the approximately 160-megabase genome, reflecting a recent massive expansion of genetic material. This expansion, in conjunction with the shaping of metabolic pathways that likely(More)
A simple technique for routine, reproducible global surveillance of the drug susceptibility status of the anaerobic protozoa Trichomonas, Entamoeba, and Giardia is described. Data collected using this technique can be readily compared among different laboratories and with previously reported data. The technique employs a commercially available sachet and(More)
The anaerobic protozoa Giardia duodenalis, Trichomonas vaginalis, and Entamoeba histolytica infect up to a billion people each year. G. duodenalis and E. histolytica are primarily pathogens of the intestinal tract, although E. histolytica can form abscesses and invade other organs, where it can be fatal if left untreated. T. vaginalis infection is a(More)
Trichomoniasis is the most common, sexually transmitted infection. It is caused by the flagellated protozoan parasite Trichomonas vaginalis. Symptoms include vaginitis and infections have been associated with preterm delivery, low birth weight and increased infant mortality, as well as predisposing to HIV/AIDS and cervical cancer. Trichomoniasis has the(More)
Metronidazole (Mz)-resistant Giardia and Trichomonas were inhibited by 1 of 30 new 5-nitroimidazole drugs. Another five drugs were effective against some but not all of the Mz-resistant parasites. This study provides the incentive for the continued design of 5-nitroimidazole drugs to bypass cross-resistance among established 5-nitromidazole antiparasitic(More)
Infections with the diarrheagenic pathogen, Giardia lamblia, are commonly treated with the 5-nitroimidazole (5-NI) metronidazole (Mz), and yet treatment failures and Mz resistance occur. Using a panel of new 2-ethenyl and 2-ethanyl 5-NI derivatives, we found that compounds with a saturated bridge between the 5-NI core and a pendant ring system exhibited(More)
Three stocks of Blastocystis hominis were adapted to monophasic culture in minimal essential medium (MEM) and the chromosomes of these stocks separated by field inversion gel electrophoresis (FIGE). Ten-twelve chromosomes were distinguished in the electrophoretic karyotype of these three stocks over the range 200 kilobase pairs to greater than 1 megabase(More)
Antiretroviral protease inhibitors were assessed in vitro for their activity against Giardia duodenalis and Trichomonas vaginalis. Kaletra (a co-formulation of ritonavir and lopinavir) was the most effective overall, with 50% effective drug concentrations (EC(50)) of 1.1-2.7 microM (ritonavir concentration) against G. duodenalis and 6.8-8 microM against(More)
Two genotypes, assemblages A and B, of the pathogenic gut protozoan parasite Giardia lamblia infect humans. Symptoms of infection range from asymptomatic to chronic diarrhea. Giardia chromosomes have long been characterized but not until the publication of the first Giardia genome sequence was chromosome mapping work, commenced nearly two decades ago,(More)