P. T. Williams

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BACKGROUND Low-carbohydrate diets have been used to manage obesity and its metabolic consequences. OBJECTIVE The objective was to study the effects of moderate carbohydrate restriction on atherogenic dyslipidemia before and after weight loss and in conjunction with a low or high dietary saturated fat intake. DESIGN After 1 wk of consuming a basal diet,(More)
We studied separately the influence of two methods for losing fat weight on the levels of plasma lipids and lipoproteins in overweight sedentary men--decreasing energy intake without increasing exercise (diet), and increasing energy expenditure without altering energy intake (exercise, primarily running)--in a one-year randomized controlled trial. As(More)
BACKGROUND The National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) recommends a low-saturated-fat, low-cholesterol diet, with weight loss if indicated, to correct elevated plasma cholesterol levels. Weight loss accomplished by simple caloric restriction or increased exercise typically increases the level of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol. Little is(More)
To test whether communitywide health education can reduce stroke and coronary heart disease, we compared two treatment cities (N = 122,800) and two control cities (N = 197,500) for changes in knowledge of risk factors, blood pressure, plasma cholesterol level, smoking rate, body weight, and resting pulse rate. Treatment cities received a 5-year, low-cost,(More)
OBJECTIVE Public health policies for physical activity presume that the greatest health benefits are achieved by increasing physical activity among the least active. This presumption is based largely on studies of cardiorespiratory fitness. To assess whether studies of cardiorespiratory fitness are germane to physical activity guidelines, we compared the(More)
BACKGROUND Genome-wide genetic association analysis represents an opportunity for a comprehensive survey of the genes governing lipid metabolism, potentially revealing new insights or even therapeutic strategies for cardiovascular disease and related metabolic disorders. METHODS AND RESULTS We have performed large-scale, genome-wide genetic analysis among(More)
BACKGROUND Recent clinical trials have shown that modification of plasma lipoprotein concentrations can favorably alter progression of coronary atherosclerosis, but no data exist on the effects of a comprehensive program of risk reduction involving both changes in lifestyle and medications. This study tested the hypothesis that intensive multiple risk(More)
BACKGROUND Official guidelines from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the American College of Sports Medicine state that every adult should accumulate 30 minutes or more of moderate-intensity physical activity on most, preferably all, days of the week. OBJECTIVE To examine the dose-response relationship between coronary heart disease(More)
Two flame retarded plastics have been pyrolysed in the presence of two Zeolite catalysts to remove the organobromine compounds from the derived pyrolysis oil. The flame retarded plastics were, acrylonitrile – butadiene – styrene (ABS) that was flame retarded with tetrabromobisphenol A and high-impact-polystyrene (HIPS) that was flame retarded with(More)
PURPOSE To assess the relationships of walking distance, frequency, and intensity to the prevalence of antidiabetic, antihypertensive, and LDL cholesterol-lowering medications use. METHODS Cross-sectional analyses of 32,683 female and 8112 male participants of the National Walkers' Health Study, of whom 2.8% and 7.4% reported antidiabetic, 14.3% and 29.0%(More)