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Technical advances are radically altering our concepts of normal prenatal craniofacial development. These include concepts of germ layer formation, the establishment of the initial head plan in the neural plate, and the manner in which head segmentation is controlled by regulatory (homeobox) gene activity in neuromeres and their derived neural crest cells.(More)
Cleft lip with or without associated cleft palate [CL(P)], one of the most common human malformations, is in most cases, believed to be caused by a combination of genetic and environmental factors. Previous studies have shown that maternal respiratory hypoxia (10% O2) increases the incidence of CL(P) from the spontaneous level of 36% to 89% in CL/Fr mice.(More)
Holoprosencephaly malformations, of which the fetal alcohol syndrome appears to be a mild form, can result from medial anterior neural plate deficiencies as demonstrated in an ethanol treated animal model. These malformations are associated with more medial positioning of the nasal placodes and resulting underdevelopment or absence of the medial nasal(More)
The uptake of radioactivity in the adrenal glands of 5-day-old male and female rats was examined 2 h following injection of radiolabeled testosterone, R1881, diethylstilbestrol, or estradiol. The adrenals of both sexes had higher levels of radioactivity than blood after testosterone or synthetic androgen (R 1881) injection. The adrenals of neither sex(More)
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