P . Sutherland

Learn More
Electrical safety is important in industrial work. This article provides considerable detail on how current can pass through different parts of the body and each parameter that can impede or limit the flow of current. Electric currents flowing through a human body can have varying effects, ranging from little or no perceptible effect, to shocking sensation,(More)
In today's power distribution systems, the protection methods do not provide full selectivity and instantaneous fault clearing for expected fault current, including lower-magnitude arcing currents simultaneously. This article discusses two methods that may change that. The first method is a selectivity analytical technique useful with many circuit breaker(More)
USA and Europe use different standards to provide electrical safety for employee workplaces. This paper examines the two standards, NFPA70E and EN 50110, shows some of the similarities and differences, and looks at the possibilities to a gradual harmonization between the two systems. The paper contributes to improving the electrical safety in the worldwide(More)
Modeling the electric system "architecture" consists in arranging the basis general scheme as a solution of the correlations system determined by assembling all the prospective components, sources and protection devices. The basic scheme will start and assist the iterative system designing process. The aim of the system modeling "architecture" is to achieve(More)
Once arc flash hazard analysis became a requirement for many industrial power system studies, the reduction of arc flash hazards has become an important concern. Inevitably, the factors that lead to reductions in arc flash hazards do not always lead to an improvement in other areas, i.e., in particular, protective device coordination. This paper will(More)
The USA and Europe use different standards to provide electrical safety for employee workplaces. This paper examines the two standards NFPA70E and EN 50110, shows some of the similarities and differences, and looks at the possibilities for a gradual harmonization between the two systems. The paper would contribute to improve the electrical safety continuity(More)
Overvoltages, for which ferroresonance was the suspected cause, were observed in the meter shop of an electric utility company, which was correlated with a broken conductor in a 13.8 kV overhead line. The shape of the distorted waveforms and the presence of many power-factor correction capacitors on the lightly loaded line led to the suspicion that this was(More)
The objective of this project was to assess the specific transformer grounding and connection methods that are used at the subject utility for distributed generators (DGs) and provide a risk assessment in terms of potential impact, ways to minimize the impact, and site specific screening criteria for additional protection that may be required for DG(More)
Three-phase reclosers with single-phase tripping are being more widely employed on utility distribution feeders. They have the advantages of increasing reliability for the customers on the feeders, because the majority of distribution feeder faults are single-phase. However, certain difficulties may occur when three-phase industrial and commercial loads,(More)