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Inert gas washout tests, performed using the single- or multiple-breath washout technique, were first described over 60 years ago. As measures of ventilation distribution inhomogeneity, they offer complementary information to standard lung function tests, such as spirometry, as well as improved feasibility across wider age ranges and improved sensitivity in(More)
BACKGROUND The gut microbiota is established during infancy and plays a fundamental role in shaping host immunity. Colonization patterns may influence the development of atopic disease, but existing evidence is limited and conflicting. OBJECTIVE To explore associations of infant gut microbiota and food sensitization. METHODS Food sensitization at 1 year(More)
Asthma is the most prevalent pediatric chronic disease and affects more than 300 million people worldwide. Recent evidence in mice has identified a "critical window" early in life where gut microbial changes (dysbiosis) are most influential in experimental asthma. However, current research has yet to establish whether these changes precede or are involved(More)
RATIONALE Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) is an endogenous nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor that competes with L-arginine for binding to NOS. It has been suggested that ADMA contributes to inflammation, collagen deposition, nitrosative stress, and lung function in murine models. OBJECTIVES To test the hypothesis that ADMA is increased in asthma(More)
Although pulmonary function testing plays a key role in the diagnosis and management of chronic pulmonary conditions in children under 6 years of age, objective physiologic assessment is limited in the clinical care of infants and children less than 6 years old, due to the challenges of measuring lung function in this age range. Ongoing research in lung(More)
L-arginine metabolism including the nitric oxide (NO) synthase and arginase pathways is important in the maintenance of airways function. We have previously reported that accumulation of asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) in airways, resulting in changes in L-arginine metabolism, contributes to airways obstruction in asthma and cystic fibrosis. Herein, we(More)
OBJECTIVE Dysbiosis of the infant gut microbiota may have long-term health consequences. This study aimed to determine the impact of maternal intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis (IAP) on infant gut microbiota, and to explore whether breastfeeding modifies these effects. DESIGN Prospective pregnancy cohort of Canadian infants born in 2010-2012: the Canadian(More)
The effect of regular inhaled beta-agonist on the treatment of exercise-induced bronchoconstriction was studied. Eight subjects with exercise-induced bronchoconstriction took 1 week each of salbutamol 200 microg qid or placebo in a random-order, double-blind, crossover study. They then withheld this treatment for 8 hours before performing a dry-air,(More)