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A growing body of preclinical evidence indicates that addiction to cocaine is associated with neuroadaptive changes in frontostriatal brain systems. Human studies in cocaine-dependent individuals have shown alterations in brain structure, but it is less clear how these changes may be related to the clinical phenotype of cocaine dependence characterized by(More)
The neural correlates of inner speech have been investigated previously using functional imaging. However, methodological and other limitations have so far precluded a clear description of the neural anatomy of inner speech and its relation to overt speech. Specifically, studies that examine only inner speech often fail to control for subjects' behaviour in(More)
BACKGROUND Stimulant drugs such as cocaine and amphetamine have a high abuse liability, but not everyone who uses them develops dependence. However, the risk for dependence is increased for individuals with a family history of addiction. We hypothesized that individuals without a family history of dependence who have been using cocaine recreationally for(More)
Studies attempting to map post-stroke cognitive or motor symptoms to lesion location have been available in the literature for over 150 years. In the last two decades, two computational techniques have been developed to identify the lesion sites associated with behavioural impairments. Voxel Based Morphometry (VBM) has now been used extensively for this(More)
The impact of in-scanner head movement on functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) signals has long been established as undesirable. These effects have been traditionally corrected by methods such as linear regression of head movement parameters. However, a number of recent independent studies have demonstrated that these techniques are insufficient to(More)
BACKGROUND Timely provision of an ankle-foot orthosis (AFO) orthotist customized for individuals early after stroke can be problematic. OBJECTIVE To evaluate the efficacy of a therapist-made AFO (SWIFT Cast) for walking recovery. METHODS This was a randomized controlled, observer-blind trial. Participants (n = 105) were recruited 3 to 42 days(More)
PURPOSE CT-based perfusion and collateral imaging is increasingly used in the assessment of patients with acute stroke. Time of stroke onset is a critical factor in determining eligibility for and benefit from thrombolysis. Animal studies predict that the volume of ischemic penumbra decreases with time. Here, we evaluate if CT is able to detect a(More)
BACKGROUND Infectious diseases are the most common and cost-intensive health complications associated with drug addiction. There is wide belief that drug-dependent individuals expose themselves more regularly to disease-related pathogens through risky behaviors such as sharing pipes and needles, thereby increasing their risk for contracting an infectious(More)
OBJECTIVES Recovery of independent ambulation after stroke is a major goal. However, which rehabilitation regimen best benefits each individual is unknown and decisions are currently made on a subjective basis. Predictors of response to specific therapies would guide the type of therapy most appropriate for each patient. Although lesion topography is a(More)
BACKGROUND Recent studies have suggested that melatonin-a hormone produced by the pineal gland under circadian control-contributes to PD-related sleep dysfunction. We hypothesized that degenerative changes to the neural structures controlling pineal function (especially the suprachiasmatic nuclei of the anterior hypothalamus) may be responsible for reduced(More)
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