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We have used computer-assisted methods to search large amounts of the human, yeast and Escherichia coli genomes for inverted repeat (IR) and mirror repeat (MR) DNA sequence patterns. In highly supercoiled DNA some IRs can form cruciforms, while some MRs can form intramolecular triplexes, or H-DNA. We find that total IR and MR sequences are highly enriched(More)
Holliday junctions are important structural intermediates in recombination, viral integration, and DNA repair. We present here the single-crystal structure of the inverted repeat sequence d(CCGGTACCGG) as a Holliday junction at the nominal resolution of 2. 1 A. Unlike the previous crystal structures, this DNA junction has B-DNA arms with all standard(More)
Transcription in the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) retrovirus is regulated by binding the viral Tat protein (trans-acting transcriptional activator) to the trans-activation response (TAR) RNA sequence. Here, vacuum UV circular dichroism (VUV-CD) is used to study the structure of TAR and its complex with two peptide fragments that are important(More)
Halogen bonds (X-bonds) are shown to be geometrically perpendicular to and energetically independent of hydrogen bonds (H-bonds) that share a common carbonyl oxygen acceptor. This orthogonal relationship is accommodated by the in-plane and out-of-plane electronegative potentials of the oxygen, which are differentially populated by H- and X-bonds.(More)
The halogen bond, a noncovalent interaction involving polarizable chlorine, bromine, or iodine molecular substituents, is now being exploited to control the assembly of small molecules in the design of supramolecular complexes and new materials. We demonstrate that a halogen bond formed between a brominated uracil and phosphate oxygen can be engineered to(More)
For insight into the mechanisms of gene regulation by growth hormone (GH), the regulation of transcription factors associated with the serum response element (SRE) located upstream of c-fos was examined. The SRE can mediate induction of reporter expression in response to GH. For insight into the mechanism by which GH regulates transcription factors,(More)
The concept of the halogen bond (or X-bond) has become recognized as contributing significantly to the specificity in recognition of a large class of halogenated compounds. The interaction is most easily understood as primarily an electrostatically driven molecular interaction, where an electropositive crown, or σ-hole, serves as a Lewis acid to attract a(More)
Polarized electronic absorption spectra of the (100) face of single crystals of the Z-form double helical duplex of d(m5CGUAm5CG) have been obtained from Kramers-Kronig analysis of reflection data. The c crystallographic axis is parallel to the helix axis and shows but weak absorption. The b axis is perpendicular to the helix axis and shows a structureless(More)
The use of halogens in therapeutics dates back to the earliest days of medicine when seaweed was used as a source of iodine to treat goiters. The incorporation of halogens to improve the potency of drugs is now fairly standard in medicinal chemistry. In the past decade, halogens have been recognized as direct participants in defining the affinity of(More)
Glucosides of trans-zeatin occur widely in plant tissues, formed either by O-glucosylation of the hydroxylated side chain or N-glucosylation of the purine ring structure. O-Glucosylation is stereo-specific: the O-glucosyltransferase encoded by the Phaseolus lunatus ZOG1 gene has high affinity for trans-zeatin as the substrate, whereas the enzyme encoded by(More)