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In 1974 J. Maynard Smith introduced the fundamental notion of an evolutionarily stable strategy (ESS) in order to explain the evolution of genetically determined social behaviour within a single animal species. If the possible pure strategies for contests within a species are 1,2,. . ., ~1, and if A = (aij) is the payoff matrix, then aij is the payoff for… (More)

An example put forward by Dawkins to describe the evolution of strategies in the conflict of the sexes over parental investment is discussed by means of a simple dynamic system. It is shown that the equilibrium of the strategies is not evolutionarily stable, but equal to the time average of the endlessly oscillating strategies. The theory of games and the… (More)

If the average number of gametes produced by the individual is small, as may be the case for haploid organisms, then sampling with and without replacement can lead to considerable differences in the fixation probabilities of mutant alleles. As a function of the population size N, these probabilities converge quickly to the survival probabilities given by… (More)

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