P. Richard Harrigan

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BACKGROUND Results of cohort studies and mathematical models have suggested that increased coverage with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) could reduce HIV transmission. We aimed to estimate the association between plasma HIV-1 viral load, HAART coverage, and number of new cases of HIV in the population of a Canadian province. METHODS We(More)
Infectious and inflammatory diseases have repeatedly shown strong genetic associations within the major histocompatibility complex (MHC); however, the basis for these associations remains elusive. To define host genetic effects on the outcome of a chronic viral infection, we performed genome-wide association analysis in a multiethnic cohort of HIV-1(More)
BACKGROUND The catalytically active 66-kDa subunit of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) reverse transcriptase (RT) consists of DNA polymerase, connection, and ribonuclease H (RNase H) domains. Almost all known RT inhibitor resistance mutations identified to date map to the polymerase domain of the enzyme. However, the connection and RNase H(More)
OBJECTIVE We wished to characterize the epidemiological and clinical correlates of CXCR4-using human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) ("X4 variants") in a cross-sectional analysis of a large population of antiretroviral-naive individuals. METHODS HIV-1 coreceptor use was determined in the last pretherapy plasma sample for 1191 individuals initiating(More)
Continuing expansion of the HIV/AIDS pandemic has been recognised as an exceptional challenge to global health, international development, and world security. UNAIDS estimates that there were more than 38 million people living with HIV at the end of 2005, with just over 4 million new infections that year. While most new cases continue to emerge from(More)
OBJECTIVE To compare the prevalence of resistance by adherence level in patients treated with non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTI) or protease inhibitors (PI). Also to examine the mechanism of differential class-specific adherence-resistance relationships, focusing on the patient-derived capacity of wild-type and drug-resistant(More)
OBJECTIVE To examine the relation between plasma HIV-1 RNA concentrations in the community and HIV incidence among injecting drug users. DESIGN Prospective cohort study. SETTING Inner city community in Vancouver, Canada. PARTICIPANTS Injecting drug users, with and without HIV, followed up every six months between 1 May 1996 and 30 June 2007. MAIN(More)
BACKGROUND We compared several statistical learning methods for the prediction of HIV coreceptor use from clonal HIV third hypervariable (V3) loop sequences, and evaluated and improved their effectiveness on clinical samples. METHODS Support vector machines (SVM), artificial neural networks, position-specific scoring matrices (PSSM) and mixtures of(More)
The rapid and extensive spread of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic provides a rare opportunity to witness host-pathogen co-evolution involving humans. A focal point is the interaction between genes encoding human leukocyte antigen (HLA) and those encoding HIV proteins. HLA molecules present fragments (epitopes) of HIV proteins on the surface(More)