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Recombinant adeno-associated virus 2 (rAAV2) has been shown to deliver genes to neurons effectively in the brain, retina, and spinal cord. The characterization of new AAV serotypes has revealed that they have different patterns of transduction in diverse tissues. We have investigated the tropism and transduction frequency in the central nervous system (CNS)(More)
1. The present study investigated regulation of reflex excitability after experimental contusion injury of the spinal cord. 2. Four measures of H-reflex excitability were evaluated in normal rats and at 6, 28, and 60 days after contusion injury at the T8 level: 1) reflex thresholds, 2) slope of the reflex recruitment curves, 3) maximal plantar(More)
Basic science advances in spinal cord injury and regeneration research have led to a variety of novel experimental therapeutics designed to promote functionally effective axonal regrowth and sprouting. Among these interventions are cell-based approaches involving transplantation of neural and non-neural tissue elements that have potential for restoring(More)
In this study, we have evaluated the capacity of recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) vectors, containing cell type-specific promoters, to transduce neurons in vivo in the normal adult rat spinal cord. The neuron-specific enolase (NSE) promoter and the platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) B-chain promoter were used to direct expression of a(More)
The distribution of interlamellar tight junctions was examined in myelin sheaths of Xenopus tadpole optic nerve and rabbit epiretinal tissue fixed with aldehydes, postfixed with osmium ferrocyanide and embedded in a water-soluble medium, Durcupan. Intramyelinic zonulae occludentes were clearly formed by fusion of adjacent intraperiod lines which(More)
Paralysis of the diaphragm is a severe consequence of cervical spinal cord injury. This condition can be experimentally modeled by lateralized, high cervical lesions that interrupt descending inspiratory drive to the corresponding phrenic nucleus. Although partial recovery of ipsilateral diaphragm function occurs over time, recent findings show persisting(More)
Because some bulbospinal respiratory premotor neurons have bilateral projections to the phrenic nuclei, we investigated whether changes in contralateral phrenic motoneuron function would occur after unilateral axotomy via C(2) hemisection. Phrenic neurograms were recorded under baseline conditions and during hypercapnic and hypoxic challenge in C(2)(More)
Pompe disease is a severe form of muscular dystrophy due to glycogen accumulation in all tissues, especially striated muscle. Disease severity is directly related to the deficiency of acid alpha-glucosidase (GAA), which degrades glycogen in the lysosome. Respiratory dysfunction is a hallmark of the disease, muscle weakness has been viewed as the underlying(More)
By 2 months after unilateral cervical spinal cord injury (SCI), respiratory motor output resumes in the previously quiescent phrenic nerve. This activity is derived from bulbospinal pathways that cross the spinal midline caudal to the lesion (crossed phrenic pathways). To determine whether crossed phrenic pathways contribute to tidal volume in spinally(More)