P. R. Truscott

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Secondary radiations produced by the interactions of primary cosmic rays and trapped protons with spacecraft materials and detectors provides an important, and sometimes dominant, radiation environment for sensitive scientific instruments and biological systems. In this paper the success of a number of calculations in predicting a variety of effects will be(More)
Flight data obtained between 1995 and 1997 from the Cosmic Radiation Environment Monitors CREAM & CREDO carried on UoSat-3, Space Shuttle, STRV-1a (Space Technology Research Vehicle) and APEX (Advanced Photovoltaic and Electronics Experiment Spacecraft) have been added to the dataset affording coverage since 1990. The modulation of cosmic rays and(More)
The Cosmic Radiation Effects and Activation Monitor has flown on six Shuttle flights between September 1991 and February 1995 covering the full range of inclinations as well as altitudes between 220 and 570 km, while a version has flown at supersonic altitudes on Concorde between 1988 and 1992 and at subsonic altitudes on a SAS Boeing 767 between May and(More)
Calculations to predict the radiation environment for spacecraft in low earth orbit sometimes ignore the contribution from secondary radiation products. However, the contribution of secondaries, particularly neutrons, on heavy spacecraft or in planetary bodies can be of concern for biological systems. The Shuttle Activation Monitor (SAM) and Cosmic(More)
Flight data obtained between 1990 and 1997 from the Cosmic Radiation Environment Monitors CREAM & CREDO carried on UoSAT-3, Space Shuttle, STRV-1a (Space Technology Research Vehicle) and APEX (Advanced Photovoltaic and Electronics Experiment Spacecraft) provide coverage over half a solar cycle. The modulation of cosmic rays and evolution of the South(More)
An X2/2B level solar flare occurred on 12 August, 1989, during the last day of the flight of the Space Shuttle Columbia (STS-28). Detectors on the GOES 7 satellite observed increased X-ray fluxes at approximately 1400 GMT and a solar particle event (SPE) at approximately 1600 GMT. Measurements with the bismuth germanate (BGO) detector of the Shuttle(More)
The Cosmic Radiation Environment & Activation Monitor (CREAM) was carried in high inclination (57.1 degrees) orbits on Shuttle missions STS-48 in September 1991 (altitude 570 km) and STS-53 (altitude 325 to 385 km) in December 1992. On both occasions the instrument observed an excess of counts due to protons of greater than 30 MeV in energy in the region(More)
The Cosmic Radiation Environment and Dosimetry experiment (CREDO) has been operational on board the Advanced Photovoltaics & Electronics Experiment Spacecraft since August 1994. Extensive measurements of cosmic ray linear energy transfer spectra (using data to January 1996) and total dose (using data to November 1994) have been made, and compared with(More)
The Shuttle Activation Monitor (SAM) experiment was flown on the Space Shuttle Columbia (STS-28) from 8-13 August, 1989 in a 57 degrees, 300 km orbit. One objective of the SAM experiment was to determine the relative effect of different amounts of shielding on the gamma-ray backgrounds measured with similarly configured sodium iodide (NaI) and bismuth(More)
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