P. R. O'Connell

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Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) techniques highlight cerebral vascular responses which are coupled to changes in neural activation. However, two major difficulties arise when employing these techniques in animal studies. First is the disturbance of cerebral blood flow due to anaesthesia and second is the difficulty of precise reproducible(More)
OBJECTIVES The relevance of spatial composition in the microbial changes associated with UC is unclear. We coupled luminal brush samples, mucosal biopsies and laser capture microdissection with deep sequencing of the gut microbiota to develop an integrated spatial assessment of the microbial community in controls and UC. DESIGN A total of 98 samples were(More)
INTRODUCTION The national junior doctor recruitment crisis prompts an appraisal of medical student attitudes to different career pathways. The purpose of this study was to perform a national review of surgical career intentions of Irish final year medical students. METHODS Ethical and institutional approval was obtained at each study location. A(More)
BACKGROUND Sacral nerve stimulation (SNS) is now well established as a treatment for fecal incontinence (FI) resistant to conservative measures and may also have utility in the management of chronic constipation; however, mechanism of action is not fully understood. End organ effects of SNS have been studied in both clinical and experimental settings, but(More)
The colonic mucus gel layer (MGL) is a critical component of the innate immune system acting as a physical barrier to microbes, luminal insults, and toxins. Mucins are the major component of the MGL. Selected microbes have the potential to interact with, bind to, and metabolize mucins. The tolerance of the host to the presence of these microbes is critical(More)
BACKGROUND Because obstetric injury to the anal sphincters may be occult, and because the mechanism of injury differs between first and subsequent deliveries, we prospectively assessed the effects of first and second vaginal deliveries on anal physiology and continence. METHODS We undertook a prospective observational study of 59 previously nulliparous(More)
BACKGROUND Tumour microenvironment (TME) of advanced colorectal cancer (CRC) suppresses dendritic cell (DC) maturation. Here, our aim was to determine how the microenvironment of early-stage tumours influences DCs. METHODS Tumour-conditioned media (TCM) was generated by culturing explant tumour tissue in vitro (n=50). Monocyte-derived DCs (MDDCs) of(More)
Asphyxial seizures occurred in 89 of 101,829 infants born alive at term (0.87/1000) in three large maternity hospitals from January 1980 to December 1984. These seizures were significantly associated with antenatal complications, primiparity, and prolonged pregnancy. Meconium staining of the amniotic fluid was also associated with asphyxial seizures, but(More)
Oxidative stress is associated with skeletal muscle fatigue. This study tests the hypotheses that N-acetylcysteine (NAC) reduces fatigue and accelerates recovery of the rat external anal sphincter (EAS). Fifteen female Wistar rats were killed humanely. The EAS was mounted as a ring preparation and electrically stimulated with 50 Hz trains of 200 ms in(More)