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Transcripts for a new form of Sox5, called L-Sox5, and Sox6 are coexpressed with Sox9 in all chondrogenic sites of mouse embryos. A coiled-coil domain located in the N-terminal part of L-Sox5, and absent in Sox5, showed >90% identity with a similar domain in Sox6 and mediated homodimerization and heterodimerization with Sox6. Dimerization of L-Sox5/Sox6(More)
Recent studies have revealed that vascular cells can produce reactive oxygen species (ROS) through NAD(P)H oxidase, which may be involved in vascular injury. However, the pathological role of vascular NAD(P)H oxidase in diabetes or in the insulin-resistant state remains unknown. In this study, we examined the effect of high glucose level and free fatty acid(More)
L-Sox5 and Sox6 are highly identical Sry-related transcription factors coexpressed in cartilage. Whereas Sox5 and Sox6 single null mice are born with mild skeletal abnormalities, Sox5; Sox6 double null fetuses die with a severe, generalized chondrodysplasia. In these double mutants, chondroblasts poorly differentiate. They express the genes for all(More)
We report here the reconstitution of a pathway that leads to the apoptotic changes in nuclei by using recombinant DNA fragmentation factor (DFF), a heterodimeric protein of 40 and 45 kDa. Coexpression of DFF40 and DFF45 is required to generate recombinant DFF, which becomes activated when DFF45 is cleaved by caspase-3. The cleaved fragments of DFF45(More)
Glutamate, the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system, activates three different receptors that directly gate ion channels, namely receptors for AMPA (alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl isoxozole propionic acid), NMDA (N-methyl-D-aspartate), and kainate, a structural analogue of glutamate. The contribution of AMPA and NMDA receptors to(More)
Two forms of activity-dependent long-term depression (LTD) in the CNS, as defined by their sensitivity to the blockade of NMDA receptors, are thought to be important in learning, memory, and development. Here, we report that NMDA receptor-independent LTD is the major form of long-term plasticity in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). Both L-type(More)
Despite the fact that the continuity of morphology of fossil specimens of modern humans found in China has repeatedly challenged the Out-of-Africa hypothesis, Chinese populations are underrepresented in genetic studies. Genetic profiles of 28 populations sampled in China supported the distinction between southern and northern populations, while the latter(More)
Silent synapses form between some primary sensory afferents and dorsal horn neurons in the spinal cord. Molecular mechanisms for activation or conversion of silent synapses to conducting synapses are unknown. Serotonin can trigger activation of silent synapses in dorsal horn neurons by recruiting AMPA receptors. AMPA-receptor subunits GluR2 and GluR3(More)
IL-1 beta-converting enzyme (ICE) cleaves pro-IL-1 beta to generate mature IL-1 beta. ICE is homologous to other proteins that have been implicated in apoptosis, including CED-3 and Nedd-2/lch-1. We generated ICE-deficient mice and observed that they are overtly normal but have a major defect in the production of mature IL-1 beta after stimulation with(More)
As an inhibitor of Ca(2+) release through ryanodine receptor (RYR) channels, the skeletal muscle relaxant dantrolene has proven to be both a valuable experimental probe of intracellular Ca(2+) signaling and a lifesaving treatment for the pharmacogenetic disorder malignant hyperthermia. However, the molecular basis and specificity of the actions of(More)