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Medicines play an important role in the treatment and prevention of disease. Whereas the side effects on human and animal health resulting directly from treatment have been widely documented, only recently have the occurrence and fate of medicines in the environment and the potential consequences for human health been recognized as an issue warranting(More)
The emergence of vancomycin-intermediate Staphylococcus aureus (VISA) and heterogeneous vancomycin-intermediate Staphylococcus aureus (hVISA) over the past decade has provided a challenge to diagnostic microbiologists to detect these strains, clinicians treating patients with infections due to these strains, and researchers attempting to understand the(More)
Mycobacterium marinum, a ubiquitous pathogen of fish and amphibia, is a near relative of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the etiologic agent of tuberculosis in humans. The genome of the M strain of M. marinum comprises a 6,636,827-bp circular chromosome with 5424 CDS, 10 prophages, and a 23-kb mercury-resistance plasmid. Prominent features are the very large(More)
BACKGROUND There are concerns about reduced efficacy of vancomycin in patients with Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia (SAB), especially when the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) nears the upper limit of the susceptible range. METHODS We examined the relationship between antibiotic treatment, 30-day mortality, and microbiologic parameters in a large(More)
Mycobacterium ulcerans is a slow-growing environmental bacterium that causes a severe skin disease known as Buruli ulcer. PCR has become a reliable and rapid method for the diagnosis of M. ulcerans infection in humans and has been used for the detection of M. ulcerans in the environment. This paper describes the development of a TaqMan assay targeting(More)
The CD8 antigen is a marker for T-lymphocyte subsets that is absent from helper T cells but expressed on cytotoxic T cells which recognize foreign determinants in association with class I major histocompatibility complex (MHC) antigens. It has been suggested that CD8 plays some part in recognition by CD8+ cytotoxic T cells since anti-CD8 antibodies can(More)
We assessed all episodes of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) bacteremia at our hospital during a 12-month period (n=53) and compared those due to heterogeneous vancomycin-intermediate S. aureus (hVISA; n = 5, 9.4%) with those due to vancomycin-susceptible MRSA (n=48). Patients with hVISA bacteremia were more likely to have high bacterial(More)
0282 B uruli ulcer is a disease of skin and soft tissue with the potential to leave sufferers scarred and disabled. It is caused by an environmental pathogen, Mycobacterium ulcerans, that produces a destructive toxin. The exact mode of transmission is unclear. The main burden of disease falls on children living in sub-Saharan Africa, but healthy people of(More)
Mycobacterium ulcerans is found in aquatic ecosystems and causes Buruli ulcer in humans, a neglected but devastating necrotic disease of subcutaneous tissue that is rampant throughout West and Central Africa. Here, we report the complete 5.8-Mb genome sequence of M. ulcerans and show that it comprises two circular replicons, a chromosome of 5632 kb and a(More)
Mycobacterium ulcerans is an environmental bacterium which causes chronic skin ulcers. Despite significant epidemiological evidence to suggest that water is the source of infection, the organism has never been identified in the environment. Environmental water samples were collected from a small town in which an outbreak of 29 cases had occurred in a 3-year(More)