P R Birkin

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We investigate the properties of gold surfaces patterned using a nanoscale "lost wax" technique by electrochemical deposition through a self-assembled latex template. Near-spherical gold nanocavities within the resulting porous films support localized surface plasmons which couple strongly to incident light, appearing as sharp spectral features in(More)
An enzyme switch, or microelectrochemical enzyme transistor, responsive to hydrogen peroxide was made by connecting two carbon band electrodes (∼10 μm wide, 4.5 mm long separated by a 20-μm gap) with an anodically grown film of poly(aniline). Horseradish peroxidase (EC 1.11.1.7) was either adsorbed onto the poly(aniline) film or immobilized in an insulating(More)
This paper describes the approach to bubble related phenomena using a novel 'acoustoelectrochemical' technique designed to investigate the physical and chemical effects of the acoustically induced motion of the bubble wall. In particular it describes the behaviour of a suspended gas bubble irradiated with sound of an appropriate frequency and pressure to(More)
The invasive nature of electrodes placed into sound fields is examined. In particular, perturbations of the sound field due to the presence of the electrode support are explored. The effect of an electrode on the drive sound field (at approximately 23 kHz) is shown to be negligible under the conditions investigated in this paper. However, scattering of(More)
Cavitation theory is used to predict the acoustic pressure at the boundary of the inertial/non inertial threshold for a range of bubble sizes. The sound field generated from a commonly employed sonoelectrochemical cell is modelled. The model is tested with a calibrated hydrophone far from the transducer to avoid spatial averaging. This allows the model to(More)
This paper reports on an electrochemical technique for the detection of oxidizing radical species, produced as the result of cavitation induced by ultrasound. A study of two example reactions is reported: the Weissler reaction and the Fricke reaction. In both cases, redox-active materials trap oxidative radicals. Electrochemical detection within a flow cell(More)
Acidogenic bacteria within dental plaque biofilms are the causative agents of caries. Consequently, maintenance of a healthy oral environment with efficient biofilm removal strategies is important to limit caries, as well as halt progression to gingivitis and periodontitis. Recently, a novel cleaning device has been described using an ultrasonically(More)
Electrochemical and high-speed imaging techniques are used to study the abilities of ultrasonically-activated bubbles to clean out micropores. Cylindrical pores with dimensions (diameter × depth) of 500 μm × 400 μm (aspect ratio 0.8), 125 μm × 350 μm (aspect ratio 2.8) and 50 μm × 200 μm (aspect ratio 4.0) are fabricated in glass substrates. Each pore is(More)
An investigation of surface cleaning using a swarm of gas bubbles within an acoustically activated stream is presented. Electrolysis of water at Pt microwires (100 μm diameter) to produce both hydrogen and oxygen bubbles is shown to enhance the extent of ultrasonic surface cleaning in a free flowing water stream containing an electrolyte (0.1 M Na2SO4) and(More)