P R Birkin

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This paper describes the approach to bubble related phenomena using a novel 'acoustoelectrochemical' technique designed to investigate the physical and chemical effects of the acoustically induced motion of the bubble wall. In particular it describes the behaviour of a suspended gas bubble irradiated with sound of an appropriate frequency and pressure to(More)
The invasive nature of electrodes placed into sound fields is examined. In particular, perturbations of the sound field due to the presence of the electrode support are explored. The effect of an electrode on the drive sound field (at approximately 23 kHz) is shown to be negligible under the conditions investigated in this paper. However, scattering of(More)
The interaction of a tethered bubble with sound is demonstrated using novel electrochemical characterisation technology. A 25 microm diameter microelectrode, positioned close to the gas/liquid interface is used to monitor the motion of the bubble wall as a function of time in the presence and absence of sonic irradiation. Evidence for 'breathing' mode(More)
Cavitation theory is used to predict the acoustic pressure at the boundary of the inertial/non inertial threshold for a range of bubble sizes. The sound field generated from a commonly employed sonoelectrochemical cell is modelled. The model is tested with a calibrated hydrophone far from the transducer to avoid spatial averaging. This allows the model to(More)
We investigate the properties of gold surfaces patterned using a nanoscale "lost wax" technique by electrochemical deposition through a self-assembled latex template. Near-spherical gold nanocavities within the resulting porous films support localized surface plasmons which couple strongly to incident light, appearing as sharp spectral features in(More)
This paper reports on an electrochemical technique for the detection of oxidizing radical species, produced as the result of cavitation induced by ultrasound. A study of two example reactions is reported: the Weissler reaction and the Fricke reaction. In both cases, redox-active materials trap oxidative radicals. Electrochemical detection within a flow cell(More)
An electrochemical technique that can detect inertial cavitation within an ultrasonic reactor is reported. The technique relies on the erosion and repassivation of an oxide covered electrode (specifically aluminum). The sensitivity of the technique (<46 fg per erosion event) is significantly greater than normal weight loss measurements. A novel(More)
An enzyme switch, or microelectrochemical enzyme transistor, responsive to hydrogen peroxide was made by connecting two carbon band electrodes (∼10 μm wide, 4.5 mm long separated by a 20-μm gap) with an anodically grown film of poly(aniline). Horseradish peroxidase (EC 1.11.1.7) was either adsorbed onto the poly(aniline) film or immobilized in an insulating(More)
An acousto-electrochemical technique is presented which, for the first time, offers the potential for measuring the flux of dissolved species in a liquid resulting from bubbles of a specific chosen size in the population. Laboratory trials are presented, but the device itself was damaged in the surf zone and no data was obtained from the ocean deployment.(More)