Learn More
PURPOSE Patients with one of the 22q11.2 deletion syndromes provide a unique opportunity to research the interface between genetics and brain-behavior relationships. This study investigates the neuropsychological characteristics and behavioral phenotype of children with this deletion syndrome. METHODS We report updated findings from descriptive and(More)
Williams and Down syndromes, two genetic syndromes of abnormal neurodevelopment, are characterized by specific neuropsychological profiles and unique patterns of brain morphology. We find that the superior language ability of subjects with Williams syndrome is accompanied by significantly better performance on a verbal short-term memory task. Conversely,(More)
The human neocortex has numerous specialized functional areas whose formation is poorly understood. Here, we describe a 15-base pair deletion mutation in a regulatory element of GPR56 that selectively disrupts human cortex surrounding the Sylvian fissure bilaterally including "Broca's area," the primary language area, by disrupting regional GPR56 expression(More)
We report on cytoarchitectonic neocortical findings in a patient with Williams syndrome (WS), a rare genetic disorder resulting in characteristic facies, heart defect, other connective tissue anomalies, and a unique neurobehavioral profile. Cytoarchitectonic anomalies include exaggerated horizontal organization of neurons within layers, most striking in(More)
UNLABELLED Velocardiofacial syndrome (VCFS) is a chromosomal anomaly syndrome characterized by multiple congenital malformations, including cleft palate and cardiac anomalies. Many patients have attention-deficit (hyperactivity) disorders (AD[H]D) in childhood and schizophrenia in adulthood. We reviewed cranial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans with(More)
Intellectual disability (ID) affects 1%-3% of the general population. We recently reported on a family with autosomal-recessive mental retardation with anterior maxillary protrusion and strabismus (MRAMS) syndrome. One of the reported patients with ID did not have dysmorphic features but did have temporal lobe epilepsy and psychosis. We report on the(More)
The 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (velocardiofacial/DiGeorge syndrome) is associated with a high frequency of learning disabilities. Although previous work has demonstrated that verbal skills are typically better preserved than non-verbal skills on both IQ and academic achievement testing in children with this syndrome, such measures are not sufficiently(More)
Previous work demonstrated enlargement of the neocerebellar vermis in Williams' syndrome (WS), despite diminished volumes in the cerebral hemispheres. We present the first in vivo volumetric study of any structure within the cerebellar hemispheres. Using MRI, we identified and reliably measured the neocerebellar tonsils in WS subjects; Down's syndrome (DS)(More)
To integrate neuroimaging, neuropathologic, and neuropsychological findings, computer-assisted morphometry was applied to magnetic resonance images of the corpus callosum in adolescents with Down and Williams syndromes and in control subjects. Callosa of subjects with Down syndrome were distinctively rounded in form, consistent with Down syndrome(More)
Williams syndrome (WS) and Down syndrome (DS) are genetic disorders with characteristic neuropsychological profiles. Subjects with WS show surface similarities to subjects with right hemisphere damage (RHD) in their relative preservation of linguistic skills, their poor visuo-constructive skills, and their hierarchical processing biases. Ten adolescents and(More)