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The ability to detect single protein molecules in blood could accelerate the discovery and use of more sensitive diagnostic biomarkers. To detect low-abundance proteins in blood, we captured them on microscopic beads decorated with specific antibodies and then labeled the immunocomplexes (one or zero labeled target protein molecules per bead) with an(More)
Amyloid β (Aβ) peptides are proteolytic products from amyloid precursor protein (APP) and are thought to play a role in Alzheimer disease (AD) pathogenesis. While much is known about molecular mechanisms underlying cerebral Aβ accumulation in familial AD, less is known about the cause(s) of brain amyloidosis in sporadic disease. Animal and postmortem(More)
We have developed a novel double Amplification Refractory Mutation System (double ARMS) using a highly polymorphic region 5' to the human delta-globin gene as a model system. The double ARMS approach involves using two allele-specific ARMS primers simultaneously during DNA amplification by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The resulting system is highly(More)
BACKGROUND Atrial fibrillation is associated with higher mortality. Identification of causes of death and contemporary risk factors for all-cause mortality may guide interventions. METHODS AND RESULTS In the Rivaroxaban Once Daily Oral Direct Factor Xa Inhibition Compared with Vitamin K Antagonism for Prevention of Stroke and Embolism Trial in Atrial(More)
Disease detection at the molecular level is driving the emerging revolution of early diagnosis and treatment. A challenge facing the field is that protein biomarkers for early diagnosis can be present in very low abundance. The lower limit of detection with conventional immunoassay technology is the upper femtomolar range (10(-13) M). Digital immunoassay(More)
UltraSPARC is the first microprocessor from Sun Microsystems' SPARC Technology Business to implement the new 64-bit SPARC V9 architecture. ULtraSPARC is equipped with unique multimedia capabilities and is capable of 4-way superscalar instruction dispatch, with an emphasis on maximal system efficiency and throughput in the execution of complex,(More)
A recent report has shown an association between a specific Xba1 restriction fragment of the human HepG2-Erythrocyte glucose transporter gene and Type 2 (non-insulin dependent) diabetes. To further examine the significance of this finding we have studied Type 2 diabetic pedigrees for linkage between the Xba1 alleles of this glucose transporter gene and(More)
The liver/islet glucose transporter (GLUT2) is expressed in the liver and in the Beta cells of pancreatic islets and is a candidate gene for the inherited defect in Type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus. A series of restriction fragment length polymorphisms have been identified using a GLUT2 cDNA probe with five restriction enzymes in a British(More)
The possibility of linkage between the human insulin receptor gene locus and diabetes was examined in three Type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetic families and one family with maturity onset diabetes of the young. Insulin receptor gene haplotypes were established using BglII, Rsal and Sstl restriction enzyme digests of genomic DNA from all available family(More)
The quantitative measurement of inflammatory cytokines in blood has been limited by insufficient sensitivity of conventional immunoassays. This limitation has prevented the widespread clinical monitoring of cytokine concentrations in chronic inflammatory diseases. We applied a sensitive, single molecule detection technology to measure TNF-α and IL-6 in the(More)