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Fish-like ancestors of tetrapods did not need strong limb musculature because they inhabited waters and were practically imponderable. In the primitive tetrapods, principal function of the limbs was initially restricted to passive anchoring in the course of animal movements on the substrate by means of lateral bending of the body (undulation). However,(More)
The goal of the investigation was to clarify the ways of subcutaneous muscles development in burrowing forms of insectivores--moles (Talpidae) and golden moles (Chrysochloridae). To achieve the goal the comparative morpho-functional analysis of subcutaneous and facial musculature of six mole genera (Neurotrichus, Urotrichus, Talpa, Mogera, Scalopus,(More)
In the pupae of three populations of Testisimulium kondici (Bar.) the variations of nine quantitative characters are determined. The discrepancies between these populations are analyzed. With the help of statistical indices the specific distinctions of one of the studied populations from two others, which are not essentially different, is established.(More)
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