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The transport of protons across membranes is an important process in cellular bioenergetics. The light-driven proton pump bacteriorhodopsin is the best-characterized protein providing this function. Photon energy is absorbed by the chromophore retinal, covalently bound to Lys 216 via a protonated Schiff base. The light-induced all-trans to 13-cis(More)
The infrared stretching bands of carboxymyoglobin (MbCO) and the rebinding of CO to Mb after photodissociation have been studied in the temperature range 10-300 K in a variety of solvents. Four stretching bands imply that MbCO can exist in four substates, A0-A3. The temperature dependences of the intensities of the four bands yield the relative binding(More)
The photo response of bacteriorhodopsin adsorbed on a bimolecular lipid membrane has been investigated using short-circuit current measurements. The results revealed a biphasic current vs. time curve for the photocurrent at pH values of approx. 7. This phenomenon could be modified by altering either the value of the external applied electrical field or the(More)
Myoglobin, a simppe dioxygen-storage protein, is a good laboratory for the investigation of the connection between protein structure, dynamics, and function. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy on carbon-monoxymyoglobin (MbCO) shows three major CO bands. These bands are excellent probes for the investigation of the structure-function relationship. They(More)
The light-driven proton pump bacteriorhodopsin (bR) was functionally expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes and in HEK-293 cells. The latter expression system allowed high time resolution of light-induced current signals. A detailed voltage clamp and patch clamp study was performed to investigate the DeltapH versus Deltapsi dependence of the pump current. The(More)
This work primarily aims to fabricate and use two photon polymerization (2PP) microstructures capable of being optically manipulated into any arbitrary orientation. We have integrated optical waveguides into the structures and therefore have freestanding waveguides, which can be positioned anywhere in the sample at any orientation using optical traps. One(More)
We have recently introduced a method, made possible by an improved orienting technique using a combination of electric and magnetic fields, that allows the three-dimensional detection of the intramolecular charge displacements during the photocycle of bacteriorhodopsin. This method generates electric asymmetry, a prerequisite for the detection of electric(More)
Optical trapping and manipulation offer great flexibility as a non-contact microassembly tool. Its application to the assembly of microscale building blocks may open new doors for micromachine technology. In this work, we demonstrate all-optical assembly of microscopic puzzle pieces in a fluidic environment using programmable arrays of trapping beams.(More)
According to our earlier pioneering study, a dry film containing native bacteriorhodopsin (bR) shows unique nonlinear optical properties (refractive index change, controllable by light of different colors, greater than 2 x 10(-3)) that are in many respects superior to those of the materials presently applied in integrated optics. Here, we report on the(More)