P. N. Kugler

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Pendular, clocking movements typify mammalian terrestrial locomotion. They can be investigated with a procedure in which people swing hand-held pendulums at the wrists, comfortably and rhythmically. Pendular, clocking behavior was examined for in-phase and out-of-phase coordinations. The periodic timing and powering of rhythmic movements in the comfort(More)
It is hypothesized that metabolic and mechanical changes in human locomotion associated with changes in speed v are constrained by two attractive strategies: Qmetab = 1 and delta Qmetab/delta v = a positive definite constant. Qmetab = delta Eks-1/ml O2s-1 where delta Eks-1 is the summed increments and decrements per unit time in the translational and(More)
The present article represents an initial attempt to offer a principled solution to a fundamental problem of movement identified by Bernstein (1967), namely, how the degrees of freedom of the motor system are regulated. Conventional views of movement control focus on motor programs or closed-loop devices and have little or nothing to say on this matter. As(More)
The focus is the power formulae relating periodic time in terrestrial locomotion and flight to mass and length. The periodic timing of limbs and wings oscillating comfortably in absolute co-ordination is viewed as the characteristic period tau 0 of a system in which the free, undamped oscillatory motion of a point mass m at a distance l from a fixed axis(More)
We criticize standard allometric approaches on the grounds that they emphasize scaling to one variable at a time, whereas chemically reactive hydrodynamic systems involved in pharmacokinetic phenomena are of higher dimension. We show that attempts based on mechanical similitude to set a dosage that would be equivalent across species (for example, from mouse(More)
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