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Rapid uptake of synaptically released glutamate via the high affinity glutamate transporter 1 (GLT1; EAAT2) is important for limiting transmitter signalling and prevents a harmful receptor overstimulation. So far, in the adult brain GLT1 protein has only been detected in astrocytes. Here, we describe the cDNA cloning of a variant of GLT1 from rat brain(More)
Nitric oxide (NO) is a ubiquitous, cell-permeable intercellular messenger. The current concept assumes that NO diffuses freely through the plasma membrane into the cytoplasm of a target cell, where it activates its cytosolic receptor enzyme, soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC). Recent evidence, however, suggests that cellular membranes are not only the(More)
Non-radioactive in situ hybridization using complementary RNA and oligonucleotide probes was applied in order to clearly identify the cell types expressing GLT1 and to show their regional distribution in the central nervous system of the rat. The results were compared with immunocytochemical data achieved using an antibody against a synthetic GLT1 peptide.(More)
l-Glutamate is the major excitatory transmitter in the vertebrate retina and plays a central role in the transmission of the various retinal neurons. Glutamate is removed from the extracellular space by at least five different glutamate transporters. The cellular distribution of these has been studied so far mainly using immunocytochemistry. In the present(More)
Pendular, clocking movements typify mammalian terrestrial locomotion. They can be investigated with a procedure in which people swing hand-held pendulums at the wrists, comfortably and rhythmically. Pendular, clocking behavior was examined for in-phase and out-of-phase coordinations. The periodic timing and powering of rhythmic movements in the comfort(More)
In the central nervous system nitric oxide appears to be critically involved in a number of physiological and pathological processes. Although there is convincing evidence for expression of nitric oxide synthase in cultured glial cells, demonstration of this enzyme in glial cells in situ remained largely unsatisfactory. In the present study we applied(More)
Quantitative histochemical methods (microphotometric kinetic and end-point measurements, and morphometric analyses of reactive areas) were used to investigate the levels of succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) in the hippocampus of young adult (3-6 months old) and aged male rats (24-27 months old). Methodological studies concerning the demonstration of SDH(More)
The collapse of international bank finance during the crisis: evidence from syndicated loan markets 1 This article examines developments in the syndicated loan markets during the financial crisis. The investigation of deal structures and purposes suggests that supply constraints aggravated the sharp decline of syndicated lending. An econometric analysis(More)
The present article represents an initial attempt to offer a principled solution to a fundamental problem of movement identified by Bernstein (1967), namely, how the degrees of freedom of the motor system are regulated. Conventional views of movement control focus on motor programs or closed-loop devices and have little or nothing to say on this matter. As(More)