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This review describes current knowledge about persistent foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) infections, the available methods to detect carrier animals, the properties of persisting virus, the immunological mechanisms, and the risk of transmission. In particular, knowledge about the carrier state, the period in which virus can be isolated from animals 28(More)
Understanding plant species distribution patterns along environmental gradients is fundamental to managing ecosystems, particularly when habitats are fragmented due to intensive human land-use pressure. To assist management of the remaining vegetation of the Eastern Afromontane Biodiversity Hotspot, plant species richness and diversity patterns were(More)
As European forest policy increasingly focuses on multiple ecosystem services and participatory decision making, forest managers and policy planners have a need for integrated, user-friendly, broad spectrum decision support systems (DSS) that address risks and uncertainties, such as climate change, in a robust way and that provide credible advice in a(More)
Introduction The 2001 foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) outbreaks in Europe have made clear that using emergency vaccination can shorten the duration of the outbreak. Until recently in the OIE code there was a big gap between the time needed to regain the status free of FMD without vaccination when using only stamping out or stamping out supported by emergency(More)
Tree heights in the central Congo Basin are overestimated using best-available height-diameter models. These errors are propagated into the estimation of aboveground biomass and canopy height, causing significant bias when used for calibration of remote sensing products in this region. Tree height-diameter models are important components of estimating(More)
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