P Mavromara-Nazos

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Papillomaviruses are an ideal model system for the study of DNA virus evolution. On several levels, phylogenetic trees of papillomaviruses reflect the relationship of their hosts. Papillomaviruses isolated from remotely related vertebrates form major branches. One branch of human papillomaviruses (HPVs) includes an ape and two monkey papillomaviruses,(More)
We have investigated the diversity of a hypervariable segment of the human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV-16) genome among 301 virus isolates that were collected from 25 different ethnic groups and geographic locations. Altogether, we distinguished 48 different variants that had diversified from one another along five phylogenetic branches. Variants from two(More)
We report the results of studies on the biologic properties of seven deletion mutants of herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1). The genes deleted from six of these mutants map in the S component of HSV-1 DNA and include those specifying the alpha protein 47, the glycoproteins G and E, the viral protein kinase, and two proteins whose functions are not yet known(More)
The herpes simplex virus genome 1 consists of two unique stretches, long (UL) and short (U(S)), each flanked by inverted repeat sequences. The U(S) sequence has been previously reported to contain 12 open reading frames designated U(S)1 through U(S)12. This report demonstrates the existence of a 13th open reading frame within the U(S) sequence, designated(More)
The transition from the expression of alpha, the first set of five herpes simplex virus genes expressed after infection, to beta and gamma genes, expressed later in infection, requires the participation of infected cell protein 4 (alpha 4), the major viral regulatory protein. The alpha 4 protein is present in complexes formed by proteins extracted from(More)
A previous report (P. Mavromara-Nazos and B. Roizman, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 86:4071-4075, 1989) demonstrated that substitution of sequences of the thymidine kinase (tk) gene, a beta gene, extending from -16 to +51 with sequences extending from -12 to +104 of the gamma 2 UL 49.5 gene in viral recombinant R3820 conferred upon the chimeric gene gamma 2(More)
The expression of gamma 2 or true gamma genes resident in the herpes simplex virus 1 genome requires functional products of genes expressed earlier in infection and viral DNA synthesis. To determine whether the requirement for viral DNA synthesis for the expression of gamma 2 genes reflects a trans-acting function of a product of one or a few genes made or(More)
The five alpha genes, alpha 0, alpha 4, alpha 22, alpha 27, and alpha 47, are the first set of herpes simplex virus 1 genes to be transcribed and expressed in productively infected cells. We report here the construction of a viral recombinant from which all of the coding sequences of the alpha 47 gene were deleted. In addition to the alpha 47 protein,(More)
DNA samples from recurrent condylomata acuminata biopsies of Greek males and females were examined for the presence of human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA using high-stringency Southern blot hybridization analysis. Of the twenty-six biopsies, 25 were positive for the HPV 6/11-related DNA sequences, and when further analyzed with the polymerase chain reaction(More)
The expression of the gamma 2 class of viral genes in cells infected with herpes simplex virus 1 requires viral DNA synthesis and functional viral products made earlier in infection. To identify the sequences required for gamma 2 gene expression, we constructed recombinant viruses in which regions of the thymidine kinase gene (tk), a beta gene normally(More)