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Genetic diversity (θ), effective population size (N(e)), and contemporary levels of gene flow are important parameters to estimate for species of conservation concern, such as the globally endangered scalloped hammerhead shark, Sphyrna lewini. Therefore, we have reconstructed the demographic history of S. lewini across its Eastern Pacific (EP) range by(More)
Labral spines are sharp projections of the apertural lip found in some marine gastropods that are used to penetrate hard-shelled prey. The majority of gastropod genera that contain labral spine-bearing species are found in the subfamily Ocenebrinae (Gastropoda: Muricidae). To reconstruct the evolutionary history of labral spine-bearing and labral(More)
Reproductive compatibility proteins have been shown to evolve rapidly under positive selection leading to reproductive isolation, despite the potential homogenizing effects of gene flow. This process has been implicated in both primary divergence among conspecific populations and reinforcement during secondary contact; however, these two selective regimes(More)
Although sympatric character divergence between closely related species has been described in a wide variety of taxa, the evolutionary processes responsible for generating these patterns are difficult to identify. One hypothesis that can explain sympatric differences is ecological character displacement: the sympatric origin of morphologically divergent(More)
Any fish species that appears to be readily available in the marketplace will create an impression among the public that there is a plentiful supply of that fish in the sea, but this may belie the true state of the fisheries' stock. Here we use molecular genetic analysis to show that some three-quarters of the fish sold in the United States as 'red(More)
BACKGROUND Cytochrome P450s (CYPs) in animals fall into two categories: those that synthesize or metabolize endogenous molecules and those that interact with exogenous chemicals from the diet or the environment. The latter form a critical component of detoxification systems. RESULTS Data mining and manual curation of the Daphnia pulex genome identified 75(More)
Differences in larval developmental mode are predicted to affect ecological and evolutionary processes ranging from gene flow and population bottlenecks to rates of population recovery from anthropogenic disturbance and capacity for local adaptation. The most powerful tests of these predictions use comparisons among species to ask how phylogeographic(More)
Phylogeographic analyses are a key interface between ecological and evolutionary ways of knowing because such analyses integrate the cumulative effects of demographic (ecological) processes over geological (evolutionary) time scales. Newly developed coalescent methods allow evolutionary ecologists to overcome some limitations associated with inferring(More)
would be difficult to disentangle this from the effects of age that may also increase grey-matter density. Understanding the neural basis of mathematical processes could play an important role in improving mathematical education. This would help individuals struggling to learn about numbers and arithmetic, such as dyscalculics, but it would also have a(More)
Polyandry is a common mating strategy in animals, increasing female fitness through direct (material) and indirect (genetic) benefits. Most theories about the benefits of polyandry come from studies of terrestrial animals, which have relatively complex mating systems and behaviors; less is known about the potential benefits of polyandry in sessile marine(More)