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Many animals rely on visual figure-ground discrimination to aid in navigation, and to draw attention to salient features like conspecifics or predators. Even figures that are similar in pattern and luminance to the visual surroundings can be distinguished by the optical disparity generated by their relative motion against the ground, and yet the neural(More)
A moving visual figure may contain first-order signals defined by variation in mean luminance, as well as second-order signals defined by constant mean luminance and variation in luminance envelope, or higher-order signals that cannot be estimated by taking higher moments of the luminance distribution. Separating these properties of a moving figure to(More)
Tracking distant odor sources is crucial to foraging, courtship and reproductive success for many animals including fish, flies and birds. Upon encountering a chemical plume in flight, Drosophila melanogaster integrates the spatial intensity gradient and temporal fluctuations over the two antennae, while simultaneously reducing the amplitude and frequency(More)
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