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Circumventricular organs (CVOs), small structures bordering the ventricular spaces in the midline of the brain, have common morphological and endocrine-like characteristics that distinguish them from the rest of the nervous system. Among their unique features are cellular contacts with two fluid phases--blood and cerebrospinal fluid--and neural connections(More)
A comprehensive stereological analysis was performed to define capillary dimensions in individual subregions of the subfornical organ in Long-Evans, homozygous Brattleboro, and Sprague-Dawley rats. Capillary density, volume fraction, length, surface area, and diameter were assessed in four regions in the sagittal plane (rostral, "transitional," central, and(More)
These seven specialized circumventricular structures of the mammalian brain represent windows with individual­ ized structural characteristics permitting intimate contact between blood and cerebrospinal fluid, neurones and spe­ cialized ependyma-glia. These "Seven Windows of the Brain", like the seven lucky deities of Japan, may each have a specific patron(More)
From recent morphological and physiological studies of capillaries, I shall review four new or revised concepts about blood-tissue communication in the subfornical organ (SFO) and area postrema (AP). First, the capillary systems of SFO and AP exhibit subregional differentiation correlated topographically with cytoarchitecture, densities of immunoreactivity(More)
Blood volume, blood flow, and blood-to-tissue transfer of an amino acid in circumventricular organs, such as the median eminence and subfornical organ, and the pituitary gland of conscious rats were measured by using quantitative autoradiographic techniques and computer-assisted processing of the tissue images. Retained erythrocyte and plasma volumes(More)
Physiological and morphometric studies were conducted on the microvascular endothelium of four individual cerebral structures having different neural activities--the inferior colliculus, sensorimotor cortex (both gray matter regions), genu of the corpus callosum (white matter), and the subfornical organ (a circumventricular organ) of rats. The physiological(More)
We examined responses of pial arteries and veins in situ to noradrenergic stimuli in the presence of histamine. Electrical stimulation of sympathetic nerves and perivascular microapplication of norepinephrine in mock cerebrospinal fluid produced constriction of arteries and veins in anesthetized cats. During simultaneous perivascular injection of histamine,(More)
Nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS), an aggregate of several individual nuclear groups in the dorsal medulla oblongata, is involved in virtually all autonomic functions as the first synaptic site in the brain for many peripheral viscerosomatic inputs. We found morphological evidence that dorsocaudal subregions of rat NTS (approximately 800 microns caudal from(More)
The quantitative autoradiographic deoxyglucose method was used to study the effects of acute adrenalectomy on local cerebral glucose utilization in conscious albino rats. Five hours following removal of the adrenal glands, glucose utilization was increased (4-55%) throughout the brain, particularly in the locus ceruleus, hypothalamic paraventricular(More)