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Johne's disease is caused by Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) and has been recognized as an important bacterial infection in ruminants. Although MAP has been detected in semen and within the reproductive organs of bulls, the bacterial distribution and shedding patterns are currently not well characterized. Our investigation was performed to(More)
Little data concerning the distribution of Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) in zoological gardens is available. The presence of MAP in captured wildlife might provide further information on non-ruminant hosts and expand the list of animals susceptible to MAP being potential sources of MAP transmission. Therefore, a German zoological garden(More)
The aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence of subclinical Mycobacterium avium spp. paratuberculosis (MAP) infections at slaughter by testing ileocaecal lymph nodes with a semi-nested IS900 PCR. Tissue samples were available within the framework of a parallel study investigating BSE-susceptibility factors in members of BSE-cohorts in the German(More)
Although it has been known for years that Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is detectable in the reproductive organs and semen of infected bulls, only few studies have been conducted on this topic worldwide. This study surveyed the MAP status of a bull, naturally infected due to close contact with its subclinically infected parents over a(More)
An alpaca (Vicugna pacos) bred and kept in a German zoological garden exhibited clinical signs consistent with paratuberculosis. The presence of Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) was confirmed in feces and in the ileocecal lymph node (ILN) by IS900-based polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays and culture. A bacterial burden of 7.6 x 10(6)(More)
This travel report describes the supply of the USA with adult day care centers and it wants to enable a comparison with the situation in other countries. The US situation is characterized by a great number of centers, most of which are not day hospitals but day care centers. The spectrum of services offered is rather big with a great diversification.(More)
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