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Although bivalves are among the most-studied marine organisms because of their ecological role and economic importance, very little information is available on the genome sequences of oyster species. This report documents three large-scale cDNA sequencing projects for the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas initiated to provide a large number of expressed(More)
BACKGROUND Zooplankton play an important role in our oceans, in biogeochemical cycling and providing a food source for commercially important fish larvae. However, difficulties in correctly identifying zooplankton hinder our understanding of their roles in marine ecosystem functioning, and can prevent detection of long term changes in their community(More)
Despite the ecological importance of copepods, few Next Generation Sequencing studies (NGS) have been performed on small crustaceans, and a standard method for RNA extraction is lacking. In this study, we compared three commonly-used methods: TRIzol®, Aurum Total RNA Mini Kit and Qiagen RNeasy Micro Kit, in combination with preservation reagents TRIzol® or(More)
The objective of this clinical trial was to evaluate the influence of prophylactic and therapeutic antibiotics on health and performance in preweaned dairy calves on a calf ranch. One hundred twenty 1-d-old calves were enrolled into 3 management systems for antibiotic use and raised until 4 wk of age. Sixty calves were not eligible to receive prophylactic(More)
Understanding how copepods may respond to ocean acidification (OA) is critical for risk assessments of ocean ecology and biogeochemistry. The perception that copepods are insensitive to OA is largely based on experiments with adult females. Their apparent resilience to increased carbon dioxide (pCO2 ) concentrations has supported the view that copepods are(More)
Substantial variations are reported for egg production and hatching rates of copepods exposed to elevated carbon dioxide concentrations (pCO 2). One possible explanation, as found in other marine taxa, is that prior parental exposure to elevated pCO 2 (and/or decreased pH) affects reproductive performance. Previous studies have adopted two distinct(More)
The critical role played by copepods in ocean ecology and biogeochemistry warrants an understanding of how these animals may respond to ocean acidification (OA). Whilst an appreciation of the potential direct effects of OA, due to elevated pCO2, on copepods is improving, little is known about the indirect impacts acting via bottom-up (food quality) effects.(More)
Copepods of the genus Calanus are key zooplankton species in temperate to arctic marine ecosystems. Despite their ecological importance, species identification remains challenging. Furthermore, the recent report of hybrids among Calanus species highlights the need for diagnostic nuclear markers to efficiently identify parental species and hybrids. Using(More)
We present a brief introduction to three reliability engineering techniques: failure mode, effects, and criticality analysis; reliability block diagrams; and fault tree analysis. We demonstrate the use of one of these techniques, reliability block diagrams, in evaluating the availability of information technology (IT) systems through a case study involving(More)