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Neurons in the superficial dorsal horn of the spinal cord are important for conveying sensory information from the periphery to the central nervous system. Some synapses between primary afferent fibres and spinal dorsal horn neurons may be inefficient or silent. Ineffective sensory transmission could result from a small postsynaptic current that fails to(More)
Small diameter dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons, which include cells that transmit nociceptive information into the spinal cord, are known to express functional kainate receptors. It is well established that exposure to kainate will depolarize C-fiber afferents arising from these cells. Although the role of kainate receptors on sensory afferents is(More)
Silent synapses form between some primary sensory afferents and dorsal horn neurons in the spinal cord. Molecular mechanisms for activation or conversion of silent synapses to conducting synapses are unknown. Serotonin can trigger activation of silent synapses in dorsal horn neurons by recruiting AMPA receptors. AMPA-receptor subunits GluR2 and GluR3(More)
Transcripts for a new form of Sox5, called L-Sox5, and Sox6 are coexpressed with Sox9 in all chondrogenic sites of mouse embryos. A coiled-coil domain located in the N-terminal part of L-Sox5, and absent in Sox5, showed >90% identity with a similar domain in Sox6 and mediated homodimerization and heterodimerization with Sox6. Dimerization of L-Sox5/Sox6(More)
Two forms of activity-dependent long-term depression (LTD) in the CNS, as defined by their sensitivity to the blockade of NMDA receptors, are thought to be important in learning, memory, and development. Here, we report that NMDA receptor-independent LTD is the major form of long-term plasticity in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). Both L-type(More)
The present study investigated the neurophysiological correlates of categorical perception of Chinese lexical tones in Mandarin Chinese. Relative to standard stimuli, both within- and across-category deviants elicited mismatch negativity (MMN) in bilateral frontal-central recording sites. The MMN elicited in the right sites was marginally larger than in the(More)
IL-1 beta-converting enzyme (ICE) cleaves pro-IL-1 beta to generate mature IL-1 beta. ICE is homologous to other proteins that have been implicated in apoptosis, including CED-3 and Nedd-2/lch-1. We generated ICE-deficient mice and observed that they are overtly normal but have a major defect in the production of mature IL-1 beta after stimulation with(More)
L-Sox5 and Sox6 are highly identical Sry-related transcription factors coexpressed in cartilage. Whereas Sox5 and Sox6 single null mice are born with mild skeletal abnormalities, Sox5; Sox6 double null fetuses die with a severe, generalized chondrodysplasia. In these double mutants, chondroblasts poorly differentiate. They express the genes for all(More)
Glutamate, the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system, activates three different receptors that directly gate ion channels, namely receptors for AMPA (alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl isoxozole propionic acid), NMDA (N-methyl-D-aspartate), and kainate, a structural analogue of glutamate. The contribution of AMPA and NMDA receptors to(More)
As an inhibitor of Ca(2+) release through ryanodine receptor (RYR) channels, the skeletal muscle relaxant dantrolene has proven to be both a valuable experimental probe of intracellular Ca(2+) signaling and a lifesaving treatment for the pharmacogenetic disorder malignant hyperthermia. However, the molecular basis and specificity of the actions of(More)