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In an experiment involving 950 mice with a normal lifespan of 2-3 years, in laboratory conditions, regular benzpyrene application to the skin was started at 10, 25, 40 or 55 weeks of age. The incidence rate of malignant epithelial tumours among the survivors in each group increased steeply with time. This increase was associated directly with duration of(More)
Smoking is a known lung cancer cause, but no detailed quantitative systematic review exists. We summarize evidence for various indices. Papers published before 2000 describing epidemiological studies involving 100+ lung cancer cases were obtained from Medline and other sources. Studies were classified as principal, or subsidiary where cases overlapped with(More)
BACKGROUND Interest is rising in smokeless tobacco as a safer alternative to smoking, but published reviews on smokeless tobacco and cancer are limited. We review North American and European studies and compare effects of smokeless tobacco and smoking. METHODS We obtained papers from MEDLINE searches, published reviews and secondary references describing(More)
BACKGROUND Malathion 0.5% has been the most prescribed pediculicide in the United Kingdom for around 10 years, and is widely used in Europe and North America. Anecdotal reports suggest malathion treatments are less effective than formerly, but this has not been confirmed clinically. This study was designed to determine whether malathion is still effective(More)
BACKGROUND Simultaneous optical mapping of multiple electrophysiologically relevant parameters in living myocardium is desirable for integrative exploration of mechanisms underlying heart rhythm generation under normal and pathophysiologic conditions. Current multiparametric methods are technically challenging, usually involving multiple sensors and moving(More)
A higher concentration of high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) in ex-smokers than smokers has consistently been observed. Better evidence of quitting effects comes from within-subject changes. We extend an earlier meta-analysis to quantify the reduction, and investigate variation by time quit and other factors. We conducted Medline and Cochrane(More)
Combining optical tweezers with single molecule fluorescence offers a powerful technique to study the biophysical properties of single proteins and molecules. However, such integration into a combined, coincident arrangement has been severely limited by the dramatic reduction in fluorescence longevity of common dyes under simultaneous exposure to trapping(More)
Cardiac optical mapping has proven to be a powerful technology for studying cardiovascular function and disease. The development and scientific impact of this methodology are well-documented. Because of its relevance in cardiac research, this imaging technology advances at a rapid pace. Here, we review technological and scientific developments during the(More)
BACKGROUND Smoking is a known cause of the outcomes COPD, chronic bronchitis (CB) and emphysema, but no previous systematic review exists. We summarize evidence for various smoking indices. METHODS Based on MEDLINE searches and other sources we obtained papers published to 2006 describing epidemiological studies relating incidence or prevalence of these(More)
We introduce an imaging modality that, by offsetting pixel-exposure times during capture of a single image frame, embeds temporal information in each frame. This allows simultaneous acquisition of full-resolution images at native detector frame rates and high-speed image sequences at reduced resolution, without increasing bandwidth requirements. We(More)