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FOXP3 is playing an essential role for T regulatory cells and is involved in the molecular mechanisms controlling immune tolerance. Although the biological relevance of this transcription factor is well documented, the pathways responsible for its induction are still unclear. The current study reveals structure and function of the human FOXP3 promoter,(More)
Forkhead box P3 (FOXP3)(+)CD4(+)CD25(+) inducible regulatory T (iT reg) cells play an important role in immune tolerance and homeostasis. In this study, we show that the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) induces the expression of the Runt-related transcription factors RUNX1 and RUNX3 in CD4(+) T cells. This induction seems to be a prerequisite for(More)
BACKGROUND Allergic asthma typically shows activated, allergen-specific CD4(+) T cells in the early phase and airway remodeling in the late phase of the disease. Although TGF-beta plays a crucial role in airway remodeling, it is only marginally induced in CD4(+) T cells in the early allergen-dependent activation of the immune system. OBJECTIVE To(More)
Humans and mice infected with different Plasmodium strains are known to produce microvesicles derived from the infected red blood cells (RBCs), denoted RMVs. Studies in mice have shown that RMVs are elevated during infection and have proinflammatory activity. Here we present a detailed characterization of RMV composition and function in the human malaria(More)
The molecular mechanisms whereby CD28 alone or associated with TCR can regulate FOXP3 expression are not understood, although the importance of CD28 as a pivotal regulator of CD4(+) CD25(+) FOXP3(+) T cells is well recognized. We previously demonstrated that unique CD28-induced, NF-κB-dependent signals were sufficient to activate FOXP3 transcription in(More)
To identify genes mediating programmed cell death triggered by interleukin 3 (IL-3)-deprivation of myeloid cells, the IL-3-dependent murine myeloid cell line FDCP-1 was used to screen a mammalian cell expression library for cDNAs that would promote survival following withdrawal of IL-3. A unique 892-base pair cDNA was cloned that prevented the programmed(More)
BACKGROUND T(H)17 cells are of pathologic relevance in autoimmune disorders and presumably also in allergy and asthma. Regulatory T (Treg) cells, in contrast, suppress inflammatory and allergen-driven responses. Despite these disparate functions, both T-cell subsets have been shown to be dependent on TGF-beta for their development. OBJECTIVE The aim of(More)
During Plasmodium falciparum infection, host red blood cell (RBC) remodeling is required for the parasite's survival. Such modifications are mediated by the export of parasite proteins into the RBC that alter the architecture of the RBC membrane and enable cytoadherence. It is probable that some exported proteins also play a protective role against the host(More)
1. The solitary wasp Ampulex compressa stings a cockroach, Periplaneta americana, twice. 2. The first sting into the ventral thorax results in a transient paralysis. During this paralysis the wasp stings the suboesophageal ganglion, which gradually results in a permanent deactivation. 3. The venom gland is a paired and highly branched organ, with a common(More)
The process of Th cell differentiation toward polarized effector T cells tailors specific immunity against invading pathogens while allowing tolerance against commensal microorganisms, harmless allergens, or autologous Ags. Identification of the mechanisms underlying this polarization process is therefore central to understand how the immune system confers(More)