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To identify CAP3 and CAP4, components of the CD95 (Fas/APO-1) death-inducing signaling complex, we utilized nano-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry, a recently developed technique to sequence femtomole quantities of polyacrylamide gel-separated proteins. Interestingly, CAP4 encodes a novel 55 kDa protein, designated FLICE, which has homology to both FADD(More)
Every cell in a multicellular organism has the potential to die by apoptosis, but tumour cells often have faulty apoptotic pathways. These defects not only increase tumour mass, but also render the tumour resistant to therapy. So, what are the molecular mechanisms of tumour resistance to apoptosis and how can we use this knowledge to resensitize tumour(More)
Chemotherapeutic drugs cause DNA damage and kill cancer cells mainly by apoptosis. p53 mediates apoptosis after DNA damage. To explore the pathway of p53-dependent cell death, we investigated if p53-dependent apoptosis after DNA damage is mediated by the CD95 (APO-1/Fas) receptor/ligand system. We investigated hepatoma, gastric cancer, colon cancer, and(More)
TP63, an important epithelial developmental gene, has significant homology to p53. Unlike p53, the expression of p63 is regulated by two different promoters resulting in proteins with opposite functions: the full-length transcriptionally active TAp63 and the dominant-negative DeltaNp63. We investigated the downstream mechanisms by which TAp63alpha elicits(More)
Caspases, a family of cysteine proteases, play a central role in apoptosis. During the last decade, major progress has been made to further understand caspase structure and function, providing a unique basis for drug design. This Review gives an overview of caspases and their classification, structure, and substrate specificity. We also describe the current(More)
Chemotherapy and radiation therapy for cancer often have severe side effects that limit their efficacy. Glucocorticoids (GCs) are frequently used as cotreatment because they may have potent proapoptotic properties and reduce nausea, hyperemesis, and acute toxicity on normal tissue. In contrast to the proapoptotic effect of GCs in lymphoid cells, resistance(More)
The contribution of Fas (CD95/APO-1) to cell death mechanisms of differentiated neurons is controversially discussed. Rat cerebellar granule neurons (CGNs) express high levels of Fas in vitro but are resistant to FasL (CD95L/APO-1L/CD178)-induced apoptosis. We here show that this resistance was mediated by a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI(More)
The clinical outcome of spinal cord injury (SCI) depends in part on the extent of secondary damage, to which apoptosis contributes. The CD95 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) ligand/receptor systems play an essential role in various apoptotic mechanisms. To determine the involvement of these ligands in SCI-induced damage, we neutralized the activity of CD95(More)
During the course of an immune response, antigen-reactive T cells clonally expand and then are removed by apoptosis to maintain immune homeostasis. Life and death of T cells is determined by multiple factors, such as T-cell receptor triggering, co-stimulation or cytokine signalling, and by molecules, such as caspase-8 (FLICE)-like inhibitory protein (FLIP)(More)