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To understand the principles of operation of the striatum it is critical to elucidate the properties of the main excitatory inputs from cortex and thalamus, as well as their ability to activate the main neurons of the striatum, the medium spiny neurons (MSNs). As the thalamostriatal projection is heterogeneous, we set out to isolate and study the thalamic(More)
The anterior portion of the human insula is implicated in a wide range of tasks that involve judgements of short periods of time (a few seconds or less). However, it is only one of several brain regions that share this property. We review the evidence for its involvement and discuss the nature of the contribution it might make to time judgements. The(More)
The pathological end-state of Parkinson disease is well described from postmortem tissue, but there remains a pressing need to define early functional changes to susceptible neurons and circuits. In particular, mechanisms underlying the vulnerability of the dopamine neurons of the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) and the importance of protein(More)
Multi-voxel pattern analysis (MVPA) is proving very powerful in the analysis of fMRI timeseries data, yielding surprising sensitivity, in many different contexts, to the response characteristics of neurons in a given brain region. However, MVPA yields a metric (classification performance) that does not readily lend itself to quantitative comparisons across(More)
Corticostriatal regulation of striatal dopamine (DA) transmission has long been postulated, but ionotropic glutamate receptors have not been localized directly to DA axons. Striatal cholinergic interneurons (ChIs) are emerging as major players in striatal function, and can govern DA transmission by activating nicotinic receptors (nAChRs) on DA axons.(More)
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