P. Karran

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We investigated the relationship between DNA cytosine methylation and the expression of two genes associated with resistance to DNA methylation damage. Variants of RajiMex- cells acquired resistance to N-methyl-N-nitrosourea by either reactivating a previously silent O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) gene or by repressing the hMSH6 mismatch(More)
Acquired resistance to alkylating agents such as N-methyl-N-nitrosourea or N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine results from the ability to tolerate the potentially cytotoxic methylated base O6-methylguanine (m6-G) in DNA. In the absence of repair by demethylation in situ, m6-G is probably lethal through its inappropriate processing by the cell. DNA(More)
Regulation of the expression of the DNA repair enzyme O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) has been investigated in a number of human lymphoblastoid cell lines. In a number of Mex- cell lines that do not express methyltransferase activity, CpG sequences in the mgmt gene were hypomethylated with respect to methyltransferase-expressing Mex+ lines. In(More)
Human lymphoid cell lines contain a DNA repair enzyme which removes the mutagenic alkylation lesion O6-methylguanine from DNA. The enzyme transfers the methyl group to a protein cysteine residue, generating S-methylcysteine, and is inactivated as a consequence of the reaction. Apparently the methylated enzyme represents a dead-end complex. The transfer(More)
A previously unrecognized mismatch repair activity is described. Extracts of immortalized MSH2-deficient mouse fibroblasts did not correct most single base mispairs. The same extracts carried out efficient repair of A/C mismatches. A/G mispairs were less efficiently corrected and there was no significant repair of A/A. MLH1-defective mouse extracts also(More)
The long-patch mismatch repair pathway contributes to the cytotoxic effect of methylating agents and loss of this pathway confers tolerance to DNA methylation damage. Two methylation-tolerant mouse cell lines were identified and were shown to be defective in the MSH2 protein by in vitro mismatch repair assay. A normal copy of the human MSH2 gene, introduced(More)
An O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase has been partially purified from calf thymus by conventional biochemical techniques. The enzyme was specifically radioactively labelled at the cysteine residue of the active site and further purified by attachment to a solid support. Following digestion with trypsin, a radioactive peptide containing the active site(More)
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