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  • P Karran
  • 2000
Human cells can process DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) by either homology directed or non-homologous repair pathways. Defects in components of DSB repair pathways are associated with a predisposition to cancer. The products of the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes, which normally confer protection against breast cancer, are involved in homology-directed DSB repair.(More)
Thiopurines have diverse clinical applications and their long-term use as anti-rejection drugs in transplant patients has been associated with a significantly increased risk of various types of cancer. Although they are slowly being replaced by a new generation of non-thiopurine immunosuppressants, it is anticipated that their use in the management of(More)
A form of genome instability in human tumours is associated with defects in a DNA mismatch repair pathway that normally corrects replication errors. The instability is observed as highly polymorphic mono- and dinucleotide microsatellites. Alterations in microsatellite length are due to accumulated frameshift mutations that arise because of uncorrected(More)
DNA mismatch repair is an important pathway of mutation avoidance. It also contributes to the cytotoxic effects of some kinds of DNA damage, and cells defective in mismatch repair are resistant, or tolerant, to the presence of some normally cytotoxic base analogues in their DNA. The absence of a particular mismatch binding function from some mammalian cells(More)
Novel peptide antigens complexed with human leukocyte antigen (HLA) and beta 2-microglobulin (beta 2M) molecules are presented at the cell surface to cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs), provoking lysis of the antigen-presenting cell [1]. In tumor cells, genetically altered or abnormally expressed proteins provide a source of peptides that can be presented to(More)
Oxidative stress and mutagenic DNA lesions formed by reactive oxygen species (ROS) are linked to human malignancy. Clinical treatments inducing chronic oxidative stress may therefore carry a risk of therapy-related cancer. We suggest that immunosuppression by azathioprine (Aza) may be one such treatment. Aza causes the accumulation of 6-thioguanine (6-TG)(More)
Microsatellite instability (MSI) is associated with defective DNA mismatch repair in various human malignancies. Using a unique fluorescent technique, we have observed two distinct modes of dinucleotide microsatellite alterations in human colorectal cancer. Type A alterations are defined as length changes of < or =6 bp. Type B changes are more drastic and(More)