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  • P Karran
  • Current opinion in genetics & development
  • 2000
Human cells can process DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) by either homology directed or non-homologous repair pathways. Defects in components of DSB repair pathways are associated with a predisposition to cancer. The products of the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes, which normally confer protection against breast cancer, are involved in homology-directed DSB repair.(More)
Thiopurines have diverse clinical applications and their long-term use as anti-rejection drugs in transplant patients has been associated with a significantly increased risk of various types of cancer. Although they are slowly being replaced by a new generation of non-thiopurine immunosuppressants, it is anticipated that their use in the management of(More)
Oxidative stress and mutagenic DNA lesions formed by reactive oxygen species (ROS) are linked to human malignancy. Clinical treatments inducing chronic oxidative stress may therefore carry a risk of therapy-related cancer. We suggest that immunosuppression by azathioprine (Aza) may be one such treatment. Aza causes the accumulation of 6-thioguanine (6-TG)(More)
The cytotoxic effect of many anticancer drugs relies on their ability to damage DNA. Drug resistance can be associated with the ability to remove potentially lethal DNA lesions. DNA damage tolerance offers an alternative route to resistance. In a drug-tolerant cell, persistent DNA damage has become uncoupled from cell death. Tolerance to some DNA damaging(More)
Acquired resistance to alkylating agents such as N-methyl-N-nitrosourea or N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine results from the ability to tolerate the potentially cytotoxic methylated base O6-methylguanine (m6-G) in DNA. In the absence of repair by demethylation in situ, m6-G is probably lethal through its inappropriate processing by the cell. DNA(More)
The major DNA excision repair pathways of base excision repair for endogenous DNA lesions and nucleotide excision repair for DNA damage inflicted by ultraviolet light have been reconstructed with purified mammalian proteins and details of these repair mechanisms are emerging. Similar data are becoming available with regard to mismatch repair for correction(More)
Novel peptide antigens complexed with human leukocyte antigen (HLA) and beta 2-microglobulin (beta 2M) molecules are presented at the cell surface to cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs), provoking lysis of the antigen-presenting cell [1]. In tumor cells, genetically altered or abnormally expressed proteins provide a source of peptides that can be presented to(More)
A form of genome instability in human tumours is associated with defects in a DNA mismatch repair pathway that normally corrects replication errors. The instability is observed as highly polymorphic mono- and dinucleotide microsatellites. Alterations in microsatellite length are due to accumulated frameshift mutations that arise because of uncorrected(More)
DNA mismatch repair is an important pathway of mutation avoidance. It also contributes to the cytotoxic effects of some kinds of DNA damage, and cells defective in mismatch repair are resistant, or tolerant, to the presence of some normally cytotoxic base analogues in their DNA. The absence of a particular mismatch binding function from some mammalian cells(More)
AIMS The thiopurines, azathioprine, 6-mercaptopurine and 6-thioguanine are one of the success stories of chemotherapy. They are effective immunosuppressants and anti-cancer agents and are prescribed increasingly to treat inflammatory diseases. Although their metabolism has been studied in detail, the optimal use of thiopurines has been guided predominantly(More)