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Past increases in yield potential of wheat have largely resulted from improvements in harvest index rather than increased biomass. Further large increases in harvest index are unlikely, but an opportunity exists for increasing productive biomass and harvestable grain. Photosynthetic capacity and efficiency are bottlenecks to raising productivity and there(More)
In photosynthesis Rubisco catalyses the assimilation of CO(2) by the carboxylation of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate. However, the catalytic properties of Rubisco are not optimal for current or projected environments and limit the efficiency of photosynthesis. Rubisco activity is highly regulated in response to short-term fluctuations in the environment,(More)
Ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) activity is modulated in vivo either by reaction with CO2 and Mg2+ to carbamylate a lysine residue in the catalytic site, or by the binding of inhibitors within the catalytic site. Binding of inhibitors blocks either activity or the carbamylation of the lysine residue that is essential for activity.(More)
In photosynthetic organisms, D-ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) is the major enzyme assimilating atmospheric CO2 into the biosphere. Owing to the wasteful oxygenase activity and slow turnover of Rubisco, the enzyme is among the most important targets for improving the photosynthetic efficiency of vascular plants. It has been(More)
Increasing photosynthesis in wheat has been identified as an approach to enhance crop yield, with manipulation of key genes involved in electron transport and the Calvin cycle as one avenue currently being explored. However, natural variation in photosynthetic capacity is a currently unexploited genetic resource for potential crop improvement. Using(More)
In C4 plants, water deficit may decrease photosynthetic CO2 assimilation independently of changes in stomatal conductance, suggesting decreased turnover by ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco). The activity and biochemistry of Rubisco was studied in three different C4 grasses: Paspalum dilatatum, Cynodon dactylon, and Zoysia japonica.(More)
The antiquity and global abundance of the enzyme, RuBisCO, attests to the crucial and longstanding role it has played in the biogeochemical cycles of Earth over billions of years. The counterproductive oxygenase activity of RuBisCO has persisted over billions of years of evolution, despite its competition with the carboxylase activity necessary for carbon(More)
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