Traditionally, NMDA receptors are located postsynaptically; yet, putatively presynaptic NMDA receptors (preNMDARs) have been reported. Although implicated in controlling synaptic plasticity, their function is not well understood and their expression patterns are debated. We demonstrate that, in layer 5 of developing mouse visual cortex, preNMDARs… (More)
Short-term plasticity (STP) denotes changes in synaptic strength that last up to tens of seconds. It is generally thought that STP impacts information transfer across synaptic connections and may thereby provide neurons with, for example, the ability to detect input coherence, to maintain stability and to promote synchronization. STP is due to a combination… (More)
Neuroscientists spent decades debating whether synaptic plasticity was presynaptically or postsynaptically expressed. It was eventually concluded that plasticity depends on many factors, including cell type. More recently, it has become increasingly clear that plasticity is regulated at an even finer grained level; it is specific to the synapse type, a… (More)
Accurate 3D reconstruction of neurons is vital for applications linking anatomy and physiology. Reconstructions are typically created using Neurolucida after biocytin histology (BH). An alternative inexpensive and fast method is to use freeware such as Neuromantic to reconstruct from fluorescence imaging (FI) stacks acquired using 2-photon laser-scanning… (More)
This protocol provides a method for quadruple whole-cell recording to study synaptic plasticity of neocortical connections, with a special focus on spike-timing-dependent plasticity (STDP). It also describes how to morphologically identify recorded cells from two-photon laser-scanning microscopy (2PLSM) stacks.
This protocol describes how to carry out theta-burst long-term potentiation (LTP) with extracellular field recordings in acute rodent hippocampal slices. This method is relatively simple and noninvasive and provides a way to sample many neurons simultaneously, making it suitable for applications requiring higher throughput than whole-cell recording.
Although it is well known that long-term synaptic plasticity can be expressed both pre- and postsynaptically, the functional consequences of this arrangement have remained elusive. We show that spike-timing-dependent plasticity with both pre- and postsynaptic expression develops receptive fields with reduced variability and improved discriminability… (More)
Astrocytes are specialized and heterogeneous cells that contribute to central nervous system function and homeostasis. However, the mechanisms that create and maintain differences among astrocytes and allow them to fulfill particular physiological roles remain poorly defined. We reveal that neurons actively determine the features of astrocytes in the… (More)
Growing experimental evidence shows that both homeostatic and Hebbian synaptic plasticity can be expressed presynaptically as well as postsynaptically. In this review, we start by discussing this evidence and methods used to determine expression loci. Next, we discuss the functional consequences of this diversity in pre- and postsynaptic expression of both… (More)