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Glucans are immunomodulatory carbohydrates found in the cell walls of fungi and certain bacteria. We examined the pharmacokinetics of three water-soluble glucans (glucan phosphate, laminarin, and scleroglucan) after oral administration of 1 mg/kg doses in rats. Maximum plasma concentrations for glucan phosphate occurred at 4 h. In contrast, laminarin and(More)
Glucans are structurally diverse fungal biopolymers that stimulate innate immunity and are fungal pathogen-associated molecular patterns. Dectin-1 is a C-type lectin-like pattern recognition receptor that binds glucans and induces innate immune responses to fungal pathogens. We examined the effect of glucan structure on recognition and binding by murine(More)
Pathological studies of a sural nerve biopsy in a man with Tangier disease presenting as a remitting-relapsing multifocal neuropathy showed abnormalities in the paranodal regions, including lipid deposition (65%) and redundant myelin foldings, with various degrees of myelin splitting and vesiculation (43%) forming small tomacula and abnormal myelin terminal(More)
OBJECTIVES Hormones and cytokines are known to act as regulatory messengers between the neuroendocrine and immune systems. The innate immune system identifies infectious agents by means of pattern-recognition receptors. These receptors recognize pathogen-specific macromolecules called pathogen-associated molecular patterns. Fungal cell wall glucans(More)
This study was undertaken to determine what factors might contribute to arterial supersensitivity to norepinephrine associated with deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)-salt hypertension in the rat. Experimental groups of male rats were uninephrectomized and 1 week later began receiving twice weekly injections of DOCA (20 mg/kg s.c. in sesame oil) plus 1%(More)
1. Unilateral denervation of the rat vas deferens (RVD) was performed under anesthesia. The animals were allowed to recover 4 or 10 days and then concentration-effect (C-E) curves to noradrenaline (NA) and neurokinin A (NKA) were constructed in denervated and control RVD. 2. Tissues denervated 4 or 10 days produced NA responses shifted 20-fold to the left(More)
Human uric acid transporter 1 (hURAT1; SLC22A12) is a very important urate anion exchanger. Elevated urate levels are known to play a pivotal role in cardiovascular diseases, chronic renal disease, diabetes, and hypertension. Therefore, the development of potent uric acid transport inhibitors may lead to novel therapeutic agents to combat these human(More)
The activity of the enzyme tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) can be increased in the rat superior cervical ganglion by stimulating the preganglionic cervical sympathetic trunk. Since nicotinic, muscarinic and alpha adrenergic receptors have been implicated in ganglionic transmission, the role of each of these receptors in the trans-synaptic regulation of TH(More)
Secretin and VIP stimulate cardiac adenylyl cyclase activity and exert a positive inotropic action in several mammalian species. This study examined positive inotropic activity and cAMP levels in rat papillary muscle. Isoproterenol and secretin increased contractions by 150+/-31% and 129+/-27%, respectively. VIP increased contraction by 30+/-21% only at 10(More)
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