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Glucans are (1-3)-beta-D-linked polymers of glucose that are produced as fungal cell wall constituents and are also released into the extracellular milieu. Glucans modulate immune function via macrophage participation. The first step in macrophage activation by (1-3)-beta-D-glucans is thought to be the binding of the polymer to specific macrophage(More)
Glucans are cell wall constituents of fungi and bacteria that bind to pattern recognition receptors and modulate innate immunity, in part, by macrophage activation. We used surface plasmon resonance to examine the binding of glucans, differing in fine structure and charge density, to scavenger receptors on membranes isolated from human monocyte U937 cells.(More)
Glucans are immunomodulatory carbohydrates found in the cell walls of fungi and certain bacteria. We examined the pharmacokinetics of three water-soluble glucans (glucan phosphate, laminarin, and scleroglucan) after oral administration of 1 mg/kg doses in rats. Maximum plasma concentrations for glucan phosphate occurred at 4 h. In contrast, laminarin and(More)
Glucans are structurally diverse fungal biopolymers that stimulate innate immunity and are fungal pathogen-associated molecular patterns. Dectin-1 is a C-type lectin-like pattern recognition receptor that binds glucans and induces innate immune responses to fungal pathogens. We examined the effect of glucan structure on recognition and binding by murine(More)
OBJECTIVES Hormones and cytokines are known to act as regulatory messengers between the neuroendocrine and immune systems. The innate immune system identifies infectious agents by means of pattern-recognition receptors. These receptors recognize pathogen-specific macromolecules called pathogen-associated molecular patterns. Fungal cell wall glucans(More)
The epinephrine (EPI) stereoisomers interact with the alpha adrenoreceptor according to the Easson-Stedman model with an order of potency of (-)-EPI greater than (+)-EPI = Epinine. A series of catecholimidazolines (CI) and catecholamidines (CA) were compared with the EPI series for the relationship of stereoisomerism to potency, affinity and efficacy.(More)
A new procedure for sympathetic denervation of the hearts of rats and guinea pigs is described. Bilateral removal of the inferior and medial cervical ganglia results in almost complete loss of catecholamines from atria and ventricles, disappearance of catecholamine-associated histofluorescence from the region of the sinoatrial node and marked depression of(More)
Tocopheryl Polyethylene Glycol Succinate 1000 (TPGS 1000) can inhibit P-glycoprotein (P-gp); TPGS 1000 was not originally designed to inhibit an efflux pump. Recent work from our laboratories demonstrated that TPGS activity has a rational PEG chain length dependency. In other recent work, inhibition mechanism was investigated and appears to be specific to(More)
Glucan phosphate, a water-soluble, chemically defined (1-->3)-beta-D-glucan biologic response modifier, has been reported to exert antisepsis activity and accelerate wound healing. In this study we describe the specific binding of glucan phosphate to human and murine monocyte/macrophage cell lines, U937 and J774A.1, respectively. At 37 degrees C,(More)
Fungal cell wall glucans nonspecifically stimulate various aspects of innate immunity. Glucans are thought to mediate their effects via interaction with membrane receptors on macrophages, neutrophils, and NK cells. There have been no reports of glucan receptors on nonimmune cells. We investigated the binding of a water-soluble glucan in primary cultures of(More)