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BACKGROUND Patients with melanoma harbouring Val600 BRAF mutations benefit from treatment with BRAF inhibitors. However, no targeted treatments exist for patients with BRAF wild-type tumours, including those with NRAS mutations. We aimed to assess the use of MEK162, a small-molecule MEK1/2 inhibitor, in patients with NRAS-mutated or Val600 BRAF-mutated(More)
BACKGROUND Ipilimumab improves survival of patients with metastatic melanoma, many of whom develop brain metastases. Chemotherapy-induced release of tumour antigens might amplify ipilimumab's antitumour activity. We aimed to investigate the efficacy and safety of ipilimumab plus fotemustine in patients with metastatic melanoma with or without asymptomatic(More)
Although the role of the tumor microenvironment in the process of cancer progression has been extensively investigated, the contribution of different stromal components to tumor growth and/or evasion from immune surveillance is still only partially defined. In this study we analyzed fibroblasts derived from metastatic melanomas and provide evidence for(More)
BACKGROUND Despite Natural Killer (NK) cells were originally defined as effectors of spontaneous cytotoxicity against tumors, extremely limited information is so far available in humans on their capability of killing cancer cells in an autologous setting. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS We have established a series of primary melanoma cell lines from(More)
Uveal melanoma, which arises from melanocytes residing in the stroma, is the most common primary intraocular tumor in adults. Up to 50% of patients with primary uveal melanoma will ultimately develop distant metastasis, the liver being involved in up to 90% of individuals and the median survival reported to be 4-5 months. The current treatment of metastatic(More)
CTLA-4 (Cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen-4) is traditionally known as a negative regulator of T cell activation. The blocking of CTLA-4 using human monoclonal antibodies, such as Ipilimumab, is currently used to relieve CTLA-4-mediated inhibition of anti-tumor immune response in metastatic melanoma. Herein, we have analyzed CTLA-4 expression and Ipilimumab(More)
Finding the best technique to identify BRAF mutations with a high sensitivity and specificity is mandatory for accurate patient selection for target therapy. BRAF mutation frequency ranges from 40 to 60% depending on melanoma clinical characteristics and detection technique used.Intertumoral heterogeneity could lead to misinterpretation of BRAF mutational(More)
Although CDKN2A is the most frequent high-risk melanoma susceptibility gene, the underlying genetic factors for most melanoma-prone families remain unknown. Using whole-exome sequencing, we identified a rare variant that arose as a founder mutation in the telomere shelterin gene POT1 (chromosome 7, g.124493086C>T; p.Ser270Asn) in five unrelated(More)
BRAF inhibitors vemurafenib and dabrafenib achieved improved overall survival over chemotherapy and have been approved for the treatment of BRAF-mutated metastatic melanoma. More recently, the combination of BRAF inhibitor dabrafenib with MEK inhibitor trametinib has shown improved progression-free survival, compared to dabrafenib monotherapy, in a Phase II(More)
Current systemic treatments for metastatic uveal melanoma (UM) have not improved overall survival (OS). The fully human anti-cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA-4) monoclonal antibody, ipilimumab, improved OS of patients with advanced cutaneous melanoma in a phase 3 trial; however, UM patients were excluded. The aim of this subanalysis, performed by the(More)