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BACKGROUND Patients with melanoma harbouring Val600 BRAF mutations benefit from treatment with BRAF inhibitors. However, no targeted treatments exist for patients with BRAF wild-type tumours, including those with NRAS mutations. We aimed to assess the use of MEK162, a small-molecule MEK1/2 inhibitor, in patients with NRAS-mutated or Val600 BRAF-mutated(More)
Uveal melanoma, which arises from melanocytes residing in the stroma, is the most common primary intraocular tumor in adults. Up to 50% of patients with primary uveal melanoma will ultimately develop distant metastasis, the liver being involved in up to 90% of individuals and the median survival reported to be 4-5 months. The current treatment of metastatic(More)
BACKGROUND This phase II study evaluated the safety and activity of ipilimumab, a fully human mAb that blocks cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4, in patients with advanced melanoma. PATIENTS AND METHODS Patients with previously treated, unresectable stage III/stage IV melanoma received 10 mg/kg ipilimumab every 3 weeks for four cycles (induction) followed(More)
Although the role of the tumor microenvironment in the process of cancer progression has been extensively investigated, the contribution of different stromal components to tumor growth and/or evasion from immune surveillance is still only partially defined. In this study we analyzed fibroblasts derived from metastatic melanomas and provide evidence for(More)
BACKGROUND Ipilimumab improves survival of patients with metastatic melanoma, many of whom develop brain metastases. Chemotherapy-induced release of tumour antigens might amplify ipilimumab's antitumour activity. We aimed to investigate the efficacy and safety of ipilimumab plus fotemustine in patients with metastatic melanoma with or without asymptomatic(More)
PURPOSE Some phase II studies have suggested that the combination of interferons (IFNs) with dacarbazine (DTIC) in the treatment of malignant melanoma (MM) increases the antitumor activity of DTIC alone. In an attempt to confirm this hypothesis, a randomized study was performed with the further intent of observing whether low doses of recombinant interferon(More)
BACKGROUND Despite Natural Killer (NK) cells were originally defined as effectors of spontaneous cytotoxicity against tumors, extremely limited information is so far available in humans on their capability of killing cancer cells in an autologous setting. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS We have established a series of primary melanoma cell lines from(More)
CTLA-4 (Cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen-4) is traditionally known as a negative regulator of T cell activation. The blocking of CTLA-4 using human monoclonal antibodies, such as Ipilimumab, is currently used to relieve CTLA-4-mediated inhibition of anti-tumor immune response in metastatic melanoma. Herein, we have analyzed CTLA-4 expression and Ipilimumab(More)
Tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) derived from several histotypes, including melanoma, can be expanded in vitro in the presence of recombinant interleukin-2 (rIL-2) and infused as part of experimental adoptive immunotherapy protocols. Several authors have described the isolation and the expansion of TIL, but little is known about the actual proportion(More)
Finding the best technique to identify BRAF mutations with a high sensitivity and specificity is mandatory for accurate patient selection for target therapy. BRAF mutation frequency ranges from 40 to 60% depending on melanoma clinical characteristics and detection technique used.Intertumoral heterogeneity could lead to misinterpretation of BRAF mutational(More)