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As a result of European Union and other legislation lead/tin (Pb/Sn) solder bumps are being phased out of integrated circuit and high density/power semiconductor device production. One possible replacement is the use of nickel bumps with an electroless nickel under bump metallization (UBM) layer built on a silicon substrate. In this study Ni(P) based films(More)
Reliability issues as a consequence of thermal/mechanical stresses created during packaging processes have been the main obstacle towards the realisation of high volume 3D Integrated Circuit (IC) integration technology for future microelectronics. However, there is no compelling laboratory-based metrology that can non-destructively measure or image(More)
Transmission X-ray diffraction imaging in both monochromatic and white beam section mode has been used to measure quantitatively the displacement and warpage stress in encapsulated silicon devices. The displacement dependence with position on the die was found to agree well with that predicted from a simple model of warpage stress. For uQFN(More)
Crystal distortions modify the propagation of x-rays in single crystal materials, and x-ray topography can be used to record these modifications on a recording medium (e.g. film) thus providing images of the distributions and nature of defects, dislocations, strains, precipitates, etc. in semiconductors [1,2]. Analysis of the topographs is often difficult(More)
Advanced More than Moore integrated circuit chip packaging is leading to the development of multiply stacked silicon die and these die are becoming ever thinner. This is leading to reliability problems. One of these is process induced die strain/warpage and there is no compelling metrology which can non-destructively measure the warpage of the die inside(More)
Crystal distortions modify the propagation of x-rays in single crystal materials, and x-ray topography can be used to record these modifications on a film thus providing images of the distributions and nature of defects, dislocations, strains, precipitates, etc. in semiconductors. Small variations of contrast, which often need to be analysed can be rendered(More)