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Pyrethroids are commonly used as mosquito adulticides and evolution of resistance to these compounds is a major threat to public health. 'Knockdown resistance' to pyrethroids (kdr) is frequently caused by nonsynonymous mutations in the voltage-gated sodium channel transmembrane protein (para) that reduce pyrethroid binding. Early detection of kdr is(More)
Parasitic and predatory arthropods often prevent plants from being severely damaged by killing herbivores as they feed on the plants. Recent studies show that a variety of plants, when injured by herbivores, emit chemical signals that guide natural enemies to the herbivores. It is unlikely that herbivore-damaged plants initiate the production of chemicals(More)
Regurgitate of corn-fed beet armyworm (BAW) caterpillars,Spodoptera exigua, when applied to damaged sites of corn (Zea mays) seedlings, causes the release of relatively large amounts of terpenes by the seedlings several hours later. This plant response could be induced by merely placing the cut stem of seedlings in a solution of BAW regurgitate for 12 hr, a(More)
OBJECTIVES To measure the impact on the dengue vector population (Aedes aegypti) and disease transmission of window curtains and water container covers treated with insecticide. DESIGN Cluster randomised controlled trial based on entomological surveys and, for Trujillo only, serological survey. In addition, each site had a non-randomised external control.(More)
There are already 40 cities in Africa with over 1 million inhabitants and the United Nations Environmental Programme estimates that by 2025 over 800 million people will live in urban areas. Recognizing that malaria control can improve the health of the vulnerable and remove a major obstacle to their economic development, the Malaria Knowledge Programme of(More)
The Ghanaian National Malaria Control Programme has prioritized insecticide-treated materials as a key strategy for malaria control. We report on a survey of the distribution of the molecular forms of Anopheles gambiae Giles (Diptera: Culicidae) and insecticide resistance (the kdr mutation), carried out by sampling mosquitoes from 11 locations in Ghana and(More)
To investigate the impact of urban agriculture on malaria transmission risk in urban Accra larval and adult stage mosquito surveys, were performed. Local transmission was implicated as Anopheles spp. were found breeding and infected Anophele s mosquitoes were found resting in houses in the study sites. The predominant Anopheles species was Anopheles gambiae(More)
A single base pair mutation in the sodium channel confers knock-down resistance to pyrethroids in many insect species. Its occurrence in Anopheles mosquitoes may have important implications for malaria vector control especially considering the current trend for large scale pyrethroid-treated bednet programmes. Screening Anopheles gambiae populations for the(More)
All animals can learn to some extent and it should not be surprising to discover that important vectors can also be influenced by experience. The potential effect of memory on vector behaviour, particularly vectorial capacity, has barely been investigated. Yet, how a population of blood-feeding insects distributes between available resources has important(More)
The effect of herbivory on the composition of the volatile blends released by cotton seedlings was investigated by collecting volatiles from undamaged, freshly damaged (0–2 hr after initiation of feeding), and old damaged (16–19 hr after initiation of feeding) plants on which corn earworm caterpillars (Helicoverpa zea Boddie) were actively feeding. A blend(More)