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The embryological development of the male urinary system remains a subject of much controversy. As a result the pathogenesis of congenital anomalies such as hypospadias and epispadias, which are presented to the reconstructive surgeon remains poorly understood. A review of the literature identifies its three principal developmental stages: (1) division of(More)
The origin, extent and topographical relationships of the urethral plate and its role in the pathogenesis of developmental anomalies (bladder extrophy, epispadias and hypospadias) remain incompletely resolved. The commonly held view that the urethral plate (the forerunner of the urethra) arises through distal proliferation of the cells of the anterior wall(More)
It is generally agreed that the urethral plate disintegrates, resulting in the urethral groove. This is subsequently transformed into the urethra by fusion of the urethral folds, which flank its sides. Recently, the existence of such a groove and folds has been denied and this challenge to the long accepted existence of such folds is significant since(More)
Chronic heart failure (CHF) and chronic kidney disease (CKD) are serious medical conditions with significant morbidity and mortality. Emerging evidence indicates that the function of these two organ systems are affected by each other in a complex interplay. Most patients with CKD suffer frequently from cardiac abnormalities including left ventricular(More)
Although the management of the alveolar cleft remains controversial secondary alveolar bone grafting is the most widely accepted approach. The results of a series of 71 secondary alveolar bone grafts performed between 1990 and 2001 on 58 patients with complete cleft lip and palate 13 of which were bilateral are presented. Bone grafts were assessed when the(More)
This paper describes a design for testability scheme and test generation for a Digital Video Signal Processing IC. The Video Signal Processor (VSP) IC has an advanced multi processor architecture and is capable of executing 1400 MOPS at an operating frequency of 27 MHz. The testability scheme developed makes full use of the "Macro Test" concept. Several new(More)
Although a number of different reconstructive techniques have been described for the treatment of axillary skin defects, split-thickness skin grafting continues to be the most common surgical modality. Here, we present our recent experience of using split-thickness skin grafts together with negative-pressure dressings for the management of defects following(More)
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