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Tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) is a potent pro-inflammatory agent produced primarily by activated monocytes and macrophages. TNF-alpha is synthesized as a precursor protein of M(r) 26,000 (26K) which is processed to a secreted 17K mature form by cleavage of an Ala-Val bond between residues 76-77. The enzyme(s) responsible for processing(More)
IL-1 beta is a cytokine generally considered to be a major component involved in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis and other inflammatory diseases. Of the agents found in high concentrations in inflamed rheumatoid arthritis joints, TNF-alpha is among the most strongly implicated as an in vivo inducer of IL-1 beta. Here we report that in human PBMC(More)
We have shown previously that truncation of the human beta-globin pre-mRNA in the second exon, 14 nucleotides downstream from the 3' splice site, leads to inhibition of splicing but not cleavage at the 5' splice site. We now show that several nonglobin sequences substituted at this site can restore splicing and that the efficiency of splicing depends on the(More)
The agouti (a) locus in mouse chromosome 2 normally regulates coat color pigmentation. The mouse agouti gene was recently cloned and shown to encode a distinctive 131-amino acid protein with a consensus signal peptide. Here we describe the cloning of the human homolog of the mouse agouti gene using an interspecies DNA-hybridization approach. Sequence(More)
Human beta-globin mRNAs truncated in the second exon or in the first intron have been processed in vitro in a HeLa cell nuclear extract. Transcripts containing a fragment of the second exon as short as 53 nucleotides are efficiently spliced, whereas transcripts truncated 24 or 14 nucleotides downstream from the 3' splice site are spliced inefficiently, if(More)
In vitro splicing of human beta-globin pre-mRNA can be fully inhibited by treatment of the splicing extract with polyclonal antibodies against hnRNP core proteins prior to the addition of pre-mRNA. Inhibition of the first step in the splicing pathway, cleavage at the 5' splice site and lariat formation, requires more antibodies than inhibition of the second(More)
Transfection of U937 and THP-1 cells with a recombinant plasmid, pIL1(4.0kb)-CAT, containing 4 kb of the interleukin 1 beta (IL-1 beta) gene upstream regulatory sequence resulted in inducer-dependent expression of chloramphenicol acetyltransferase activity. Treatment of the transfected cells with various combinations of the inducers lipopolysaccharide,(More)
Three types of 14-mer oligonucleotides were hybridized to human beta-globin pre-mRNA and the resultant duplexes were tested for susceptibility to cleavage by RNase H from E. coli or from HeLa cell nuclear extract. The oligonucleotides contained normal deoxynucleotides, phosphorothioate analogs alternating with normal deoxynucleotides, or one to six(More)
Elevation of cAMP downregulates certain functions of inflammatory cells, including the release of TNF alpha and IL-1 beta by macrophages. Intracellular cAMP levels can be modulated pharmacologically by adding cell-permeable cAMP analogs, by stimulating adenylate cyclase or by inhibiting degradation of cAMP by cAMP-phosphodiesterases (cAMP-PDE). Multiple(More)
The electrophoresis step in the RNA fingerprinting procedure has been modified by replacing the large and expensive electrophoresis tank with a horizontal agarose gel electrophoresis box, a common piece of laboratory equipment. Two RNA molecules (67 and 298 nucleotides long) transcribed in vitro from a truncated human beta-globin gene have been(More)