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In humans and experimental animals, damage to the hippocampus or related medial temporal lobe structures severely impairs the formation of new memory but typically spares very remote memory. Questions remain about the importance of these structures for the storage and retrieval of remote autobiographical memory. We carried out a detailed volumetric analysis(More)
Current views about the organization of human memory make strikingly different predictions about the integrity of remote autobiographical memory following damage to the medial temporal lobe. We have carried out a detailed analysis of narrative content in memory-impaired patients for whom neuropsychological and neuroanatomical information is available. All(More)
Most amnesic patients with damage to the medial temporal lobe retain some capacity to learn new information about facts and events. In many cases, the learning appears to depend on a residual ability to acquire conscious (declarative) knowledge. We have studied the capacity for semantic (fact) learning in the profoundly amnesic patient E.P., who has(More)
The in vitro and in vivo properties of L-655,708, a compound with higher affinity for GABA(A) receptors containing an alpha5 compared to an alpha1, alpha2 or alpha3 subunit have been examined further. This compound has weak partial inverse agonist efficacy at each of the four subtypes but, and consistent with the binding data, has higher functional affinity(More)
The formation of new associations between items is critical for establishing episodic memories. It has been suggested that the hippocampus is essential for creating such associations but is not involved, or is much less involved, in memory for single items. In Experiment 1, we tested controls and amnesic patients with bilateral lesions thought to be limited(More)
Semantic knowledge (e.g., long-established knowledge about objects, facts, and word meanings) is known to be severely impaired by damage to the anterolateral temporal lobe. For example, patients with semantic dementia have prominent atrophy in anterolateral temporal cortex and also have significant damage within the medial aspect of the temporal lobe.(More)
Previous findings of intact remote autobiographical memory in patients with medial temporal lobe damage have been questioned on the grounds that the narrative recollections were impoverished and fact-like and that the methods were not sufficiently sensitive to detect an impairment. We adopted a newer method, the Autobiographical Interview [Levine B, Svoboda(More)
We examined new semantic learning in two profoundly amnesic patients (E.P. and G.P.) whose lesions involve virtually the entire medial temporal lobe (MTL) bilaterally. The patients were given five tests of semantic knowledge for information that could only have been acquired after the onset of their amnesia in 1992 and 1987, respectively. Age-matched and(More)
Recently, there has been renewed interest in the organization and neurobiology of remote memory, and the pace of work in this area has accelerated. Yet the recent literature does not suggest that a consensus is developing, and there is disagreement about both facts and their interpretation. This article undertakes a comprehensive review of the three kinds(More)
We studied item and source memory with fMRI in healthy volunteers and carried out a parallel study in memory-impaired patients. In experiment 1, volunteers studied a list of words in the scanner and later took an item memory test and a source memory test. Brain activity in the hippocampal region, perirhinal cortex, and parahippocampal cortex was associated(More)