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Buprenorphine (BUP) is an oripavine analgesic that is beneficial in the maintenance treatment of opiate-dependent individuals. Although BUP has been studied extensively, relatively little is known about norbuprenorphine (norBUP), a major dealkylated metabolite of BUP. We now describe the binding of norBUP to opioid and nociceptin/orphanin FQ (ORL1)(More)
During the development of the spinal cord, proliferative neural progenitors differentiate into postmitotic neurons with distinct fates. How cells switch from progenitor states to differentiated fates is poorly understood. To address this question, we studied the differentiation of progenitors in the zebrafish spinal cord, focusing on the differentiation of(More)
Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) is a trophic factor for peripheral organs, spinal cord, and midbrain dopamine (DA) neurons. Levels of GDNF deteriorate in the substantia nigra in Parkinson's disease (PD). A heterozygous mouse model was created to assess whether chronic reductions in this neurotrophic factor impact motor function and the(More)
The Period2 gene plays a key role in controlling circadian rhythm in mice. We report here that mice deficient in the mPer2 gene are cancer prone. After gamma radiation, these mice show a marked increase in tumor development and reduced apoptosis in thymocytes. The core circadian genes are induced by gamma radiation in wild-type mice but not in mPer2 mutant(More)
Cancer cells generally exhibit increased glycolysis for ATP generation (the Warburg effect) due in part to mitochondrial respiration injury and hypoxia, which are frequently associated with resistance to therapeutic agents. Here, we report that inhibition of glycolysis severely depletes ATP in cancer cells, especially in clones of cancer cells with(More)
Sharply delineated domains of cell types arise in developing tissues under instruction of inductive signal (morphogen) gradients, which specify distinct cell fates at different signal levels. The translation of a morphogen gradient into discrete spatial domains relies on precise signal responses at stable cell positions. However, cells in developing tissues(More)
We describe an enhancer trap transgenic zebrafish line, ETvmat2:GFP, in which most monoaminergic neurons are labeled by green fluorescent protein (GFP) during embryonic development. The reporter gene of ETvmat2:GFP was inserted into the second intron of vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (vmat2) gene, and the GFP expression pattern recapitulates that of the(More)
Cancer cells exhibit increased glycolysis for ATP production due, in part, to respiration injury (the Warburg effect). Because ATP generation through glycolysis is less efficient than through mitochondrial respiration, how cancer cells with this metabolic disadvantage can survive the competition with other cells and eventually develop drug resistance is a(More)
This paper presents a general approach based on the shape similarity tree for non-sequential alignment across databases of multiple unstructured mesh sequences from non-rigid surface capture. The optimal shape similarity tree for non-rigid alignment is defined as the minimum spanning tree in shape similarity space. Non-sequential alignment based on the(More)
The migration of cells and growth cones is a process that is guided by extracellular cues and requires the controlled remodeling of the extracellular matrix along the migratory path. The ADAM proteins are important regulators of cellular adhesion and recognition because they can combine regulated proteolysis with modulation of cell adhesion. We report that(More)