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The availability of draft sequences for both the mouse and human genomes makes it possible, for the first time, to annotate whole mammalian genomes using comparative methods. TWINSCAN is a gene-prediction system that combines the methods of single-genome predictors like GENSCAN with information derived from genome comparison, thereby improving accuracy.(More)
At 17+4 week, non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) results of a 24-years-old mother showed high risk of monosomy X (45, X). Abnormally shaped head and cardiac defects were observed in prenatal ultrasound scan at 19+3 week. Amniocentesis conducted at 19+3 week identified karyotype 47, XX, +18, which suggested that the NIPT failed to detect trisomy 18 (T18)(More)
Chronic constriction injury (CCI) of the sciatic nerve in rodents produces mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia and is a common model of neuropathic pain. Here we compare the inflammatory responses in L4/5 dorsal root ganglia (DRGs) and spinal segments after CCI with those after transection and ligation at the same site. Expression of ATF3 after one week(More)
Urothelium synthesizes a group of integral membrane proteins called uroplakins, which form two-dimensional crystals (urothelial plaques) covering >90% of the apical urothelial surface. We show that the ablation of the mouse uroplakin III (UPIII) gene leads to overexpression, defective glycosylation, and abnormal targeting of uroplakin Ib, the presumed(More)
The efficient production of biofuels from cellulosic feedstocks will require the efficient fermentation of the sugars in hydrolyzed plant material. Unfortunately, plant hydrolysates also contain many compounds that inhibit microbial growth and fermentation. We used DNA-barcoded mutant libraries to identify genes that are important for hydrolysate tolerance(More)
Although water, small nonelectrolytes, and gases are freely permeable through most biological membranes, apical membranes of certain barrier epithelia exhibit extremely low permeabilities to these substances. The role of integral membrane proteins in this barrier function has been unclear. To study this problem, we have ablated the mouse gene encoding(More)
The distribution of major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC II)-positive non-neuronal cells and T-lymphocytes was examined immunohistochemically in dorsal root ganglia (DRGs) up to 12 weeks following transection of one sciatic or lumbar spinal nerve in adult rats. Unlike within the brain, MHC II immunopositive (+) and T-cells are normally present(More)
The apical surface of mouse urothelium is covered by two-dimensional crystals (plaques) of uroplakin (UP) particles. To study uroplakin function, we ablated the mouse UPII gene. A comparison of the phenotypes of UPII- and UPIII-deficient mice yielded new insights into the mechanism of plaque formation and some fundamental features of urothelial(More)
Urothelial plaques consist of four major uroplakins (Ia, Ib, II, and III) that form two-dimensional crystals covering the apical surface of urothelium, and provide unique opportunities for studying membrane protein assembly. Here, we describe a novel 35-kD urothelial plaque-associated glycoprotein that is closely related to uroplakin III: they have a(More)
Transient forebrain ischemia induces delayed, selective neuronal death in the CA1 region of the hippocampus. The underlying molecular mechanisms are as yet unclear, but it is known that activation of L-type Ca2+ channels specifically increases the expression of a group of genes required for neuronal survival. Accordingly, we examined temporal changes in(More)